Prevalence

There are an estimated 14,285,700 people in modern slavery in India – this is equivalent to 1.1409% of the entire population

India’s modern slavery challenges are immense. Across India’s population of over 1.2 billion people, all forms of modern slavery, including inter-generational bonded labour, trafficking for sexual exploitation, and forced marriage, exist. Evidence suggests that members of lower castes and tribes, religious minorities, and migrant workers are disproportionately affected by modern slavery.1  Modern slavery occurs in brick kilns, carpet weaving, embroidery and other textile manufacturing, forced prostitution, agriculture, domestic servitude, mining, and organised begging rings.2  Bonded labour is particularly prevalent throughout India,3 with families enslaved for generations.

Products known to be produced using modern slavery 4

BricksCarpetsCottonEmbroidered textilesGarmentsRiceStone

There are reports of women and children from India and neighbouring countries being recruited with promises of non-existent jobs and later sold for sexual exploitation,5 or forced into sham marriages.6  In some religious groups, pre-pubescent girls are sold for sexual servitude in temples.7  Recent reports suggest that one child goes missing every eight minutes; it is feared that some are sold into forced begging, domestic work, and commercial sexual exploitation.8

Bangladeshis and Nepalese, particularly women and children, migrate to India in search of work.9  Young Nepali women banned from traveling to the Gulf for domestic work also pass through India as an alternative route. Some of these migrants then experience abuse and exploitation.10

Other migrants are fraudulently sent by recruiters to India to be transported to jobs in the Gulf, only to remain in India in positions of forced labour or commercial sexual exploitation.11

Government response

ScoreSurvivors are supportedCriminal justiceCoordination and accountabilityAttitudes, social systems and institutionsBusiness and government
CCC5047.633.362.50

Given the scale and complexity of the response required in India, it is significant that the Indian Government has taken steps to better communicate key elements of its anti-trafficking response. In 2014, the Ministry of Home Affairs launched the ‘anti-trafficking portal’, which includes information on criminal justice statistics, anti-trafficking police units, government and law enforcement training, the anti-trafficking legislation, and reporting mechanisms, including the ChildLine hotline number.12

The portal does not appear to provide information about forced or bonded labour, which reflects a broader institutional separation between responses to bonded labour, which is the responsibility of the Department of Labour, and human trafficking, which is the responsibility of the Ministry of Justice.

On paper, criminal justice reforms specific to human trafficking are the strongest component of India’s response to modern slavery. In 2013, the government amended the Indian Penal code to include specific anti-trafficking provisions. In 2014, the government expanded the number of police anti-human trafficking units across the country to 215 units, aiming to establish a unit in 650 districts. The judiciary and over 20,000 law enforcement have received training on victim identification, the new legal framework, and victim-centered investigations.13  The government’s victim compensation scheme extends to human trafficking victims, however, the amount and efficiency of dispersal is largely dependent on the State administration, and is not available country-wide.14

Although bonded labour is criminalised,15 it is still a significant issue. The government response to bonded labour is monitored by the National Human Rights Commission that reviews existing policies and practices,16 and provides training to district Magistrates, Deputy Commissioners, and other government officials.17  Reports suggest that most States are yet to implement the Supreme Court Order which required District Vigilance committees to undertake surveys to identify and release those in bonded labour, as already required by the Bonded Labour Act.18  The State of Karnataka is an exception and has made progress on the Order.

Efforts need to be directed toward expanding and improving victim support services.The Ujjawala project is a victim support programme that provides rescue, rehabilitation, and reintegration services for commercial sexual exploitation victims, and trafficking prevention initiatives.19  In addition, the SWADHAR GREH scheme provides temporary accommodation and rehabilitation services for women and girls, including survivors of trafficking. While government shelters are required to register, there are no standards attached to registration, and no inspections or follow-up. The shelters have limited facilities and resources to provide holistic support and are currently only available for women and girls.20  Of particular concern are reports of traffickers re-recruiting women into trafficking from shelters.21

Indian police are beginning to collaborate with regional counterparts on transnational human trafficking investigations. In 2014, Indian and Bangladeshi police undertook a joint investigation to identify two Bangladeshi girls sold into commercial sexual exploitation in India. Both girls were found and successfully repatriated; the offenders are being prosecuted under new anti-trafficking provisions.22

Vulnerability

Slavery policyHuman rightsState stabilityDiscriminationDevelopment
85.958.956.538.354

Dalits have the least social protections and are highly vulnerable to severe forms of exploitation and modern slavery. The limited ability for people to move out of this group increases their vulnerability. Approximately 90 percent of India’s labourers are in the informal economy,23 presenting risks associated with a highly unregulated and unmonitored work environment. Women and girls face significant discrimination and high rates of sexual violence across India.24

While Prime Minister Narendra Modi referred to a string of rapes as a national ‘shame’,25 and there has been a raft of legislative and criminal justice reforms signalling some progress, women are still at risk of sexual assault and domestic violence.26  The rates of forced and servile marriage continue to trap women and girls in cycles of domestic servitude with few opportunities for education, meaningful employment or access to reproductive rights.27

Indian migrant workers actively seek jobs in construction and care industries, primarily in the Gulf, Europe and North America. From 2012 to 2015, there were more people leaving India than arriving, with most migrants seeking work through their networks rather than formal channels.28  Official migration processes are complex and often tainted by corruption, which further encourages irregular migration. These channels leave migrants with little recourse against practices such as unilateral contracts, dangerous working and living conditions, limited movement and access to communications, withholding of passports and wages, and physical and sexual abuse.29

Recommendations

Government

  • Ratify and implement the Convention of the Worst Forms of Child Labour and the Domestic Workers Convention.
  • Require all States to follow up on the Supreme Court Judgment of October 15, 2012, to identify and release those in bonded labour.
  • Update regulations and processes for the implementation of the Bonded Labour Act, and report on its implementation.
  • Implement a new National Action Plan that targets the full spectrum of modern slavery.
  • Continue to strengthen protections for victims of modern slavery and ensure that they are not criminalised.
  • Victims must be protected (including protecting their identities) throughout the duration of their court cases.
“Suparna was 17 when she was trafficked from her hometown in West Bengal by a person named Raj. She was completing her studies in Grade 9 and thought she was being sent to Delhi to marry Raj, who was 20. She was brought to Delhi by a friendly lady who said she was a friend of Raj’s. When she reached Delhi however, she was sold into forced prostitution in the brothels of Garstin Bastion Road. Raj and his friend Raju continuously tortured her physically when she refused to involve herself in sex work. From there she was sold to ladies who were apparently the brothel managers in Garstin Bastion Road. Even there, she was being beaten up and was forced to entertain customers. A man assisted Suparna to escape, but when she returned to her village she suffered harassment and she and her family were forced to move.”
Client account contributed by Shakti Vahini, Walk Free partner, India.

See where India ranks in Asia Pacific

Learn about slavery in China, Australia, Russia, or

Footnotes

  1. Personal communication
  2. See: India’s Childhood in the “Pits”: A report on the impacts of mining on children in India, (Dhaatri Resource Centre for Women and Children, 2010), accessed 31/07/14: http://www.indianet.nl/pdf/MaidInIndia-suppliers.pdf; Dalits and bonded labour in India, International Dalit Solidarity Network, accessed 31/07/14: http://idsn.org/caste-discrimination/key-issues/bonded-labour/india/; Christine Joffries et al., “Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India,” International Journal of Equity Health 2, (2008), accessed 31/07/14: http://www.equityhealthj.com/content/7/1/22; Suneel Kumar, “Exploring the Rural-Agrarian Linkages of Human Trafficking: A study of the Indian Punjab,” International Migration 51 no. 4, (2013), accessed 31/0714: http://www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/imig.12096/abstract
  3. “Bonded labour can be addressed by reducing conditions that perpetrate bondage like situation – Experts”, International Labour Organisation, October 17, 2013, accessed 29/08/14: http://
    www.ilo.org/newdelhi/info/public/pr/WCMS_223590/lang—en/index.html
  4. Bricks, cottonseed, carpets, embellished textiles and garments in: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor. 2013 List, (US Department of Labor, 2013), accessed 10/010/14: http://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/child-labor/list-of-goods/; Rice and stone in: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor: India, (US Department of Labor, 2014), accessed 10/10/14: http://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/child-labor/india.htm#ENREF_35
  5. “Sex Trafficking”, Dalit Freedom Network, last modified 2012, accessed 16/09/14: http://www.dfn.org.uk/info/slavery/42-information/slavery/92-sex-trafficking; See also: Christine Joffries et al., “Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India”, International Journal of Equity Health 2, (2008), accessed 31/07/14: http://www.equityhealthj.com/content/7/1/22
  6. “Jajnaseni: Trafficking and Safe Migration”, Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women, 2012, accessed 31/07/14: http://www.gaatw.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=730:jajnaseni-trafficking-and-safe-migration&catid=95:member-profile&Itemid=67
  7. TN Sathayanarayana and Giridhara R Babu, “Targeted sexual exploitation of children and women in India: Policy perspectives on Devadasi system”, Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, no. 5 (2012), pp.157-162, accessed 16/09/14: http://www.atmph.org/article.asp?issn=1755-6783;year=2012;volume=5;issue=3;spage=157;epage=162;aulast=Sathyanarayana; See also “Education and Health Care for the Devadasi Community and other Poor Families,” Terre des Hommes, 2013, accessed 31/07/14: http://www.terredeshommesnl.org/en/south-asia/projects/project/education-and-health-care-for-the-devada
  8. Deeptiman Tiwary, “One lakh children go missing in India every year: Home Ministry”, Times of India, August 7, 2014, accessed 09/09/14: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/One-lakh-children-go-missing-in-India-every-year-Home-ministry/articleshow/39779841.cms
  9. Labour Migration Trends and Patterns: Bangladesh, India and Nepal 2013, (The Asia Foundation, 2013), pp. 43-45, accessed 31/08/14: http://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/LabourMigrationTrendsandPatternsBangladeshIndiaandNepal2013.pdf; See also: Office of the Special Rapporteur on Trafficking In Women and Children, Trafficking in Persons Especially on Women and Children in Nepal, (National Human Rights Commission, 2014), accessed 16/09/14: http://www.nhrcnepal.org/nhrc_new/doc/newsletter/1289900699Report%20of%20Trafficking%20in%20Persons%20(Especially%20on%20Women%20and%20Children)%20National%20Report%202012-2013-Eng.pdf
  10. Labour Migration Trends and Patterns: Bangladesh, India and Nepal 2013, (The Asia Foundation, 2013), pp. 43-45, accessed 31/08/14: http://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/LabourMigrationTrendsandPatternsBangladeshIndiaandNepal2013.pdf; See also Tricked and Trapped: Human Trafficking in the Middle East, (ILO & Heartland Alliance International, 2013), p. 71, accessed 31/08/14: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—-arabstates/—-ro-beirut/documents/publication/wcms_211214.pdf
  11. As above
  12. “Anti-Trafficking Cell”, Ministry of Home Affairs, last modified 2014, accessed 16/09/14: http://mha.nic.in/ATC_new
  13. Government of India, “Response to 6 Monthly Update on Response to Modern Slavery – Case Study”, (Walk Free Foundation, 2014), accessed 14/07/14: http://www.globalslaveryindex.org/country/india/
  14. Victim compensation available for victims of human trafficking in some states – see “Government of India, “Response to 6 Monthly Update on Response to Modern Slavery – Case Study”, (Walk Free Foundation, 2014), accessed 14/07/14: http://www.globalslaveryindex.org/country/india/
  15. Government of India, “Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act 1976”, accessed 16/09/14: http://www.childlineindia.org.in/CP-CR-Downloads/Bonded%20Labour%20System%20(Abolition)%20Act%201976%20and%20Rules.pdf
  16. “Abolition of Bonded Labour”, National Human Rights Commission, last modified unknown, accessed 16/09/14: http://nhrc.nic.in/hrissues.htm#no1
  17. As above
  18. Personal communication
  19. Current Status of Victim Service Providers and Criminal Justice Actors in India on Anti-Human Trafficking, (UNDOC, 2013), p. 35, accessed 14/07/14: http://www.unodc.org/documents/southasia//reports/Human_Trafficking-10-05-13.pdf
  20. As above
  21. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Trafficking in Persons Report: India Country Narrative, (United States Department of State, 2014), pp. 203-206, accessed 14/07/14: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226846.pdf
  22. Government of India, “Response to 6 Monthly Update on Response to Modern Slavery – Case Study”, (Walk Free Foundation, 2014), accessed 14/07/14: http://www.globalslaveryindex.org/country/india/
  23. Neelkanth Mishra & Ravi Shankar, “India’s better half: The informal economy”, (Credit-Suisse, 2013), accessed 20/08/14: https://www.credit-suisse.com/newsletter/doc/apac/aic2013/20130712_indiamkt.pdf
  24. “India: HRW Letter to Justice Verma, Chair of the Commission on reforms on sexual assault and Former Chief Justive of the Supreme Court of India”, Human Rights Watch, January 5, 2013, accessed 31/07/14: http://www.hrw.org/news/2013/01/05/india-hrw-letter-justice-verma-chair-commission-reforms-sexual-assault-and-former-ch
  25. “Sexual Violence is India’s “shame”, Modhi urges parents to educate sons”, SBS, August 16, 2014, accessed 15/08/14: http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2014/08/15/sexual-violence-indias-shame-modi-urges-parents-educate-sons
  26. Nita Bhalla, “As India gang rape trial ends, a debate of what has changed”, Thomson Reuters Foundation, September 9, 2013, accessed 15/08/14: http://www.trust.org/item/20130906170502-jexnb/?source=spotlight
  27. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Trafficking in Persons Report: India Country Narrative, (United States Department of State, 2013), p. 195, accessed 15/08/14: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/210739.pdf
  28. The net migration rate is – 0.2 “India”, International Organisations for Migration, last modified November, 2013, accessed 31/07/14: https://www.iom.int/cms/en/sites/iom/home/where-we-work/asia-and-the-pacific/india.html. A study on Indian Immigation suggests 80% of intended emigrants sought employment through social networks, while only 7 percent went through formal channels: S. Irudaya Rajan, V.J. Varghese & M.S. Jayakumar, Overseas Recruitment in India: Structures, Practices and Remedies, (Working Paper, Centre for Development
    Studies, 2010), p. 24, accessed 31/07/14: http://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/123456789/3160/wp421.pdf?sequence=1
  29. S. Irudaya Rajan, V.J. Varghese & M.S. Jayakumar, Overseas Recruitment in India: Structures, Practices and Remedies, (Working Paper, Centre for Development Studies, 2010), pp. 49-51, accessed 31/07/14: http://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/123456789/3160/wp421.pdf?sequence=1

Other reports

Country briefs

View detailed country briefs that describe the nature of problem, government responses, and action needed to address modern slavery in 32 countries.

Country results

View the prevalence, vulnerability and government response data of each country.

Regional profiles

View regional trends in:

Get the full report

Download the report
Survivors are identified, supported to exit and remain out of modern slavery
Criminal justice mechanisms address modern slavery
Coordination and accountability mechanisms for the central government are in place
Attitudes, social systems and institutions that enable modern slavery are addressed
Businesses and governments through their public procurement stop sourcing goods and services that use modern slavery

Government response rating: AAA

Numerical range: 59 to 64

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of AAA are as follows:
The government has an implemented an effective and comprehensive response to all forms of modern slavery, with effective emergency and long-term reintegration victim support services, a strong criminal justice framework, high levels of coordination and collaboration, measures to address all forms of vulnerability, and strong government procurement policies and legislation to ensure that slavery is not present in business supply chains. There is no evidence of criminalisation or deportation of victims.

Government response rating: AA

Numerical range: 53 to 58

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of AA are as follows:
The government has implemented a comprehensive response to most forms of modern slavery, with strong victim support services, a robust criminal justice framework, demonstrated coordination and collaboration, measures to address vulnerability, and government procurement guidelines and/or supply chain policies or legislation to ensure that slavery is not present in business supply chains.

Government response rating: A

Numerical range: 47 to 52

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of A are as follows:
The government has implemented key components of a holistic response to some forms of modern slavery, with strong victim support services, a strong criminal justice framework, demonstrated coordination and collaboration, measures to address vulnerability, and may have taken action to ensure that government procurement policies do not encourage slavery.

Government response rating: BBB

Numerical range: 41 to 46

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of BBB are as follows:
The government has implemented key components of a holistic response to modern slavery, with victim support services, a strong criminal justice response, evidence of coordination and collaboration, and protections in place for vulnerable populations. Governments may be beginning to address slavery in supply chains of government procurement, or of businesses operating within their territory. There may be evidence that some government policies and practices may criminalise and/or cause victims to be deported.

Government response rating: BB

Numerical range: 35 to 40

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of BB are as follows:
The government has introduced a response to modern slavery, which includes short term victim support services, a criminal justice framework that criminalises some forms of modern slavery, a body to coordinate the response, and protections for those vulnerable to modern slavery.There may be evidence that some government policies and practices may criminalise and/or cause victims to be deported, and/or facilitate slavery.

Government response rating: B

Numerical range: 29 to 34

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of B are as follows:
The government has introduced a response to modern slavery, with limited victim support services, a criminal justice framework that criminalises some forms of modern slavery, (or has recently amended inadequate legislation and policies), a body or mechanisms that coordinate the response, and has policies that provide some protection for those vulnerable to modern slavery. There is evidence that some government policies and practices may criminalise and/or deport victims, and/or facilitate slavery. Services may be provided by International Organisations (IOs)/ NGOs with international funding, sometimes with government monetary or in-kind support.

Government response rating: CCC

Numerical range: 23 to 28

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of CCC are as follows:
The government has a response to modern slavery, with limited victim support services, a criminal justice framework that criminalises some forms of modern slavery, has a national action plan and/or national coordination body, and has policies that provide some protections for those vulnerable to modern slavery. There is evidence that some government policies and practices may criminalise and/or deport victims, and/ or facilitate slavery. Services may be largely provided by IOs/NGOs with international funding, with limited government funding or in-kind support.

Government response rating: CC

Numerical range: 17 to 22

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of CC are as follows:
The government has a limited response to modern slavery, with largely basic victim support services, a limited criminal justice framework, limited coordination or collaboration mechanism, and few protections for those vulnerable to modern slavery.There may be evidence that some government policies and practices facilitate slavery. Services are largely provided by IOs/NGOs with limited government funding or in-kind support.

Government response rating: C

Numerical range: 11 to 16

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of C are as follows:
The government response to modern slavery is inadequate, with limited and/or few victim support services, a weak criminal justice framework, weak coordination or collaboration, while little is being done to address vulnerability.There are government practices and policies that facilitate slavery. Services, where available, are largely provided by IOs/NGOs with little government funding or in-kind support.

Government response rating: D

Numerical range: <0 to 10

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of D are as follows:
The government has a wholly inadequate response to modern slavery, and/ or there is evidence of government sanctioned modern slavery. However, countries in this category may be experiencing high levels of poverty and internal conflict that may prevent, or hinder a response to modern slavery.

north face jacket sale,ralph lauren sale,louis vuttion bags uk,michael kors bags uk,moncler outlet uk,ralph lauren online shop,cheap ralph lauren,christian louboutin sale,louis vuttion outlet,cheap ralph lauren