1
Country Study
7 of 167Prevalence Index Rank

Mauritania

  • 43,000 Estimate number living in Modern Slavery
  • 1.06% Estimate percentage of population living in Modern Slavery
  • 46.77/100 Vulnerability to Modern Slavery
  • CC Government Response Rating
  • 4,068,000 Population
  • $3,912 GDP (PPP)

Prevalence

How many people are in modern slavery in Mauritania?

The 2016 Global Slavery Index estimates 43,000 people or 1.06% of the total population live in conditions of modern and traditional slavery in Mauritania. This is based on a randomsample, nationally-representative survey undertaken in 2015, that sought to identify instances of both forced marriage and forced labour within the general population (surveys conducted in French, Hassanya, Poulaar, Wolof and Soninke languages).


Country Findings of Prevalence

43,000

Estimate number enslaved


Mauritania continues to host a high proportion of people living in slavery in the world. Slavery is entrenched in Mauritanian society. Slave status is inherited generation to generation and is deeply rooted in social castes and the wider social system. Those owned by masters often have no freedom to own land, cannot claim dowries from their marriages nor inherit property or possessions from their families.[1]

Forced marriage

Walk Free survey data reveals an estimated 23,000 victims of forced marriage in Mauritania (or 53 percent).[2]

UNFP estimates as many as 35 percent of marriages in the country are forced or early.[3] The dangerous and damaging practice of leblouh or gavage, the force-feeding of child brides to make them gain weight before marriage, continues across the country.[4] It is predominantly practised by Arab Moors seeking the highest dowry for their daughter.[5]

Maslaha marriages (kinship marriages) remain common between cousins with many girls being married early in a stated effort to prevent them from rape and sexual violence.[6] The desire to prevent pregnancies out-of-wedlock has similarly been noted as a driving factor fuelling the prevalence of forced marriages.[7]

The practice of siriya or 'temporary' marriages continues between Mauritanian girls and wealthy Middle Eastern men.[8] Some reports suggest young daughters are frequently married off to Saudi Arabian men as prepubescent brides who are later rejected once they reach puberty or become pregnant.[9] Mauritanian women and girls are also at risk of being forced into prostitution by their 'husbands' in the Middle East.

Forced labour

Of a total 20,000 people estimated in forced labour, Walk Free survey results revealed 43 percent were exploited in the construction sector in Mauritania. Forced labour in the construction sector in Mauritania is a currently unidentified issue with no existing research or reports on its existence or prevalence. Field-based sources describe situations in which fathers send young sons to work as apprentices with a technical person, doing mechanical work or masonry. Sometimes those employers take advantage of the situation, exploiting children beyond their physical capacity. However, little more is known about these men's experience, indicating a need for organisations on the ground to further explore these cases.

Of a total 20,000 people estimated in forced labour, Walk Free survey results revealed an estimated 42 percent were exploited in domestic work. Forced labour in the domestic sector commonly includes women performing domestic chores, such as fetching water, gathering firewood, preparing food, pounding millet and caring for their master's children.[10] Men and boys enslaved in the domestic sector typically herd animals (camels, cows, goats) or are forced to work in the fields.[11]

There is an increasing demand for Mauritanian domestic workers in the Middle East. In September 2015, Mauritanian trade unions reported 900 Mauritanian women were trafficked to work in Saudi Arabia.[12] These women believed they had accepted roles as nurses, teachers and childminders, but instead were expected to perform domestic work in private homes. These women experienced physical confinement in the home, passport confiscation, and some reported physical and sexual harassment.[13] As traditional migrant labour sending countries, such as the Philippines and Indonesia, implement stricter bans on the recruitment of their nationals for domestic work in the Middle East, the hiring of Mauritanian women to fill the void is likely to continue.

Forced begging

Religion and slavery are closely interrelated in Mauritania and religion has reportedly been called upon by masters as justification for ownership over another person.[14] There have been cases of Talibes, boys who attend Koranic school, being forced into begging on the streets.[15] Forced begging is practised primarily by Black Mauritanians.[16] Boys from low-income families in the Halpulaar community were most vulnerable to forced begging.[17]

Walk Free Foundation 2015 survey data

Number % % male victims % female victims
Forced labour 20,000 47 71 29
Forced marriage 23,000 53 28 72
Modern slavery total 43,000 100 48 52
Forced labour by sector of exploitation %
Domestic work 42
Construction 43
Manufacturing 4
Other manufacturing 1
Farming 1
Sex Industry 0
Drug production 3
Retail sector 3
Other 0
DK 0
Refused 3
Total 100

Uzbekistan is the world’s sixth largest producer of cotton. During the annual cotton harvest, citizens are subjected to statesanctioned forced labour. Monitoring by international organisations has meant the government has begun to take steps to improve the situation, however, reports from the 2015 harvest estimate that over one million people were forced to work.

Photo credit, Simon Buxton/Anti-Slavery International

Vulnerability

What factors explain or predict the prevalence of modern slavery in Mauritania?

Men, women and children in Mauritania continue to be vulnerable to a range of risk factors associated with entering into and remaining in situations of modern slavery. Mauritanian society is deeply divided by ethnicity, descent, castes and class[18] which continue to influence the vulnerability of some groups to hereditary or chattel slavery—whereby slave status is inherited generation to generation.


Average Vulnerability Score

46.77/100


CountryCivil & Political ProtectionsSocial, Health, & Economic RightsPersonal SecurityRefugees & ConflictMean
Mauritania65.9640.5449.8530.7446.77

The Black Moors (also known as Haratines) were historically enslaved by the Arab Moors, the minority rulers.Today, due to their entrenched marginalised status, many remain under the direct or indirect control of their traditional masters.[19] The psychological nature of slavery means it is not uncommon for masters and slaves to form bonds[20] which can hinder efforts to shift the traditional cultural mindset that slavery is acceptable. Many Black Moors remain caught in an isolating system perpetuated by a lack of education and knowledge of life outside of servitude.[21] Some AfroMauritanians, including the Peuhl, Soninke, Wolof and Bambara, continue to be vulnerable to modern slavery as a result of their discriminatory status.

The systematic exclusion of Black Moors and AfroMauritanians from political and economic life results in a corresponding economic disparity between groups.[22] An estimated 42 percent of Mauritanian's are living in poverty,[23] many of whom reside in rural communities reliant on the precarious agriculture and pastoralist sectors for their livelihood. Mauritania is subject to harsh climatic conditions—including frequent droughts and floods—which result in persistent severe food crises.[24] The lack of alternative livelihood opportunities provides little incentive for enslaved workers to seek work outside of their master's home or farm.

Despite a constitutional guarantee of free compulsory primary education, many children do not attend school.[25] In 2014, the UN Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Racism reported as many as 80 percent of children in Haratine communities in Nouakchott were not in school.[26] Lack of education increases the vulnerability of children to the worst forms of child labour and forced marriage, as a lack of future economic or employment options leads many parents to marry their daughters early.

Some children continue to lack birth registration certificates which deny them access to essential health and education services, limits an individual's ability to assert property rights, and reduces legal work options—this makes individuals highly vulnerable to accepting jobs in the informal market where they are denied appropriate protection. Some Mauritanian refugee children who fled to neighbouring Mali remain stateless although this situation is improving following the 2015 decision of the Malian Government to extend birth certificates to 7,807 Mauritanian children.[27]

The opposing flow of Malian refugees into Mauritania following the 2012 conflict has seen the creation of the M'bera refugee camp. New refugees continued to arrive throughout 2015.[28] The traditional caste hierarchy persists in the camp affecting equitable aid distribution.Bella children, already vulnerable to exploitation and forced labour as domestic workers in the homes of Arabs and Tuaregs in Mali, are particularly vulnerable to food shortages and ill-treatment in the camp.[29] UNHCR continues to advocate for the adoption of national asylum law and provision of civil status documentation for refugees,[30] many of whom are vulnerable to human trafficking. The government does not provide legal alternatives to the removal of foreign victims of modern slavery to countries where they may face hardship or retribution.[31]

Mauritanians and other Sub-Saharan African migrants continue to be vulnerable to human trafficking as they travel within the country and onto North Africa. The vast, poorly-patrolled borders increase the accessibility of transit through the country and the ability of traffickers to exploit victims with impunity.[32]

From the 'Less than Human' series. A large cargo boat is seen in Songkla Port, Thailand. 09/03/2014. Photographer Chris Kelly worked undercover to expose the link between prawns being sold in big name supermarkets, and the slaves who live and work on Thai fishing boats miles out to sea.

Photo credit, Chris Kelly

Government Response

How is the Mauritania Government tackling modern slavery?

Slavery in Mauritania was abolished in 1981, criminalised in 2007 and designated as a crime against humanity under the constitutional reform in 2012.[33] In August 2015, a new antislavery law was enacted that increased the maximum prison sentence for the crime of slavery from 10 to 20 years.[34] All forms of trafficking, except hereditary slavery, are prohibited by the 2003 Law Against Trafficking in Persons, which prescribes penalties of five to 10 years' imprisonment for violations.[35] Despite these legislative advancements, a 'deliberate and systematic failure' of both the government and local organisations to enforce laws allows exploitation of citizens to continue.[36] In 2011, the first and only slave owner was convicted in Mauritania, receiving an inadequate sentence of 6 month's imprisonment.[37] Despite this unprecedented conviction, the government has not pursued investigations, prosecutions or convictions for slavery crimes since.[38]


Government Response Rating

CC


In March 2013, the President of Mauritania established the National Agency to Fight against the Vestiges of Slavery, Integration, and Fight against Poverty (known as Tadamouns) which outlined a National Plan of Action.[39] In March 2014, the plan was formally adopted by the government of Mauritania in cooperation with the OHCHR Field Office in Nouakchott and a special Tribunal to prosecute crimes of slavery was established.[40] The Tribunal has not prosecuted any cases of slavery and field sources suggest there is no evidence that such a Tribunal exists.[41] In December 2015, the government ordered the creation of special courts to try slavery cases—further details on the timeframe for their creation were not found.[42] The UN Special Rapporteur on Trafficking has expressed concerns that Tadamoun was not independent of the government.[43] To date, it is unclear what effect the activities undertaken by the body has had on victims.

In March 2016, Mauritania became the second African nation to commit to ending modern slavery by ratifying the 2014 Protocol to the Forced Labour Convention, 1930.[44]

Some experts believe this signifies a growing government commitment to addressing forced labour throughout the country.

In the 2014 Global Slavery Index, we reported that advocacy and awareness to address hereditary slavery was incrementally building momentum in Mauritania, with prominent anti-slavery activist Biram Dah Abeid drawing attention to the issue through his candidacy in the June 2014 Presidential elections.[45] However, since then,the Mauritanian Government has arrested Biram alongside eight other anti-slavery activists during a peaceful protest march in November 2014. In 2015, the government increased its clampdown of anti-slavery activists, particularly those linked to the IRA-Mauritania (Initiative for the Resurgence of the Abolitionist Movement).[46] Biram and two other protesters have remained imprisoned for 18 months before finally being released in May 2016.

The government has taken some small steps to increasing public awareness of human trafficking, by televising two debates and three symposia on the Vestiges of Slavery.[47] In 2015, the government collaborated with the IOM allowing selected border officials at the Headquarters of the General Directorate for National Security (DGSN) in Nouakchott to participate in awareness training on human trafficking and migrant smuggling.[48] Further widespread training for law enforcement personnel and the judiciary is needed to combat the chronic lack of awareness of anti-slavery laws and the institutionalised acceptance of slavery by many members of society. The disinclination of authorities to assist victims of modern slavery, coupled with systemic barriers in victims accessing justice (such as the requirement that victims file complaints themselves despite many being illiterate and, therefore, unable to complete and file forms), means that cases are almost never pursued.[49]

Past editions of the Global Slavery Index have noted that the Quran has been used by some religious leaders to give grounds for the existence of modern slavery in Mauritania.[50] Activists say some imams continue to speak in favour of slavery in mosques, particularly in rural areas.[51] However, since December 2014, 1,000 mosques have committed to spreading anti-slavery messages revealing a growing commitment to combat slavery.[52]

Rajshahi, Bangladesh, January 2013. Dipa is 13 years old and has been engaged in prostitution for five months. She used to go to school, but stopped in class three after her family could no longer afford to send her. Her two sisters are also engaged in prostitution, but clients prefer to visit Dipa as she is the youngest of the three. She gets between four or five clients and earns about 1,200 Taka (US$15) a day.

Photo credit, Pep Bonet/ NOOR

Recommendations

What do we recommend

Government

  • Immediately release anti-slavery activists for participation in peaceful protests.
  • Educate parents on the dangerous health impacts of leblouh or gavage, and prosecute those found forcing their daughters to participate.
  • Create bi-lateral agreements with labour-receiving countries in the Middle East to ensure decent working conditions are met for Mauritanian domestic workers.
  • Fully implement the recommendations made by the ILO Committee on the Application of Standards.
  • Conduct a nationwide awareness campaign on the illegality of slavery and forms of modern slavery that persist in Mauritania today.[53]
  • Increase support for victims by establishing a victim-support mechanism with emergency shelter and assistance, legal assistance and reintegration programmes for both adults and children.
  • Increase support to civil society organisations and NGOs who are working to combat slavery and to implement new slavery policies.

Business

  • Import and export trading with any Mauritanian business should be considered high risk until there is evidence that the government are actively making progress in the Roadmap to End Slavery (particularly China, Mauritania's largest trading partner, importing more than 50 percent of goods from the country).[54]
  • Draft a clause to include in contracts with major cattle and goat exporters, prohibiting the purchasing of livestock that has been sourced from farmers using forced labour in their herding practices.

Footnotes

  1. Anti-Slavery International, Thematic report on slavery in Mauritania for the UN Human Rights Committee, 107th session, 11–28 March 2013. Adoption of the List of Issues on the initial report of Mauritania, Anti-Slavery International, (United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2013), accessed 10/03/2016:  http://bit.ly/Za4MyV
  2. Walk Free Survey Data, Gallup World Poll, 2015 
  3. Marrying Too Young – End Child Marriage, (United Nations Population Fund, 2012), p. 23, accessed 05/09/14:  http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/documents/publications/2012/MarryingTooYoung.pdf
  4. Emma Batha, 'Mauritania Must Ban Deadly Force Feeding of Child Brides – Activists', Thomson Reuters Foundation, January 18, 2014, accessed 10/03/2016: 
  5. Personal communication 
  6. Protecting the Girl Child: Using the Law to End Child, Early and Forced Marriages and Other Human Rights Violations, (Equality Now, 2014), p. 26, accessed 10/03/2016:  http://www.equalitynow.org/sites/default/files/Protecting_the_Girl_Child.pdf
  7. Judith Ann-Walker, Sarah Mukisa, Yahaya Hashim and Hadiza Ismail, Mapping Early Marriage in West Africa: A Scan of Trends, Interventions, What Works, Best Practices and the Way Forward, (Ford Foundation, 2013), p. 6, accessed 10/03/2016:  http://www.girlsnotbrides.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Ford-Foundation-CM-West-Africa-2013_09.pdf
  8. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Trafficking in Persons Report: Mauritania Country Narrative, (United States Department of State, 2015), p. 241, accessed 2/10/15:, see also, Equality Now, Protecting the Girl Child: Using the Law to End Child, Early and Forced Marriages and Other Human Rights Violations, (Equality Now, 2014), p. 43, accessed 10/03/2016:  http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243560.pdf, http://www.equalitynow.org/sites/default/files/Protecting_the_Girl_Child.pdf
  9. As above. 
  10. Anti-Slavery International, Thematic report on slavery in Mauritania for the UN Human Rights Committee, 107th session, 11–28 March 2013. Adoption of the List of Issues on the initial report of Mauritania, Anti-Slavery International, (United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2013), accessed 10/03/2016: 
  11. As above. 
  12. 'Mauritanian Women Kept as Slaves in Saudi Arabia', International Trade Union Confederation, September 24, 2015, aacessed 10/03/16: 
  13. Jeroen Beirnaert, 'Stop the Trafficking of Mauritanian Women to Saudi Arabia', Equal Times, September 22, 2015, accessed 10/03/2016:  http://www.equaltimes.org/stop-the-trafficking-of#.Vgt3Jsuqqko
  14. Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Slavery, Including its Causes and Consequences, (United Nations General Assembly, 2010), accessed 10/09/14:  http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/slavery/rapporteur/docs/A.HRC.15.20.Add.2_en.pdf
  15. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Trafficking in Persons Report: Mauritania Country Narrative, (United States Department of State, 2014), p. 268, accessed 22/07/14:  http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226847.pdf
  16. Personal communication. 
  17. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Trafficking in Persons Report: Mauritania Country Narrative,, (United States Department of State, 2014), p. 241, accessed 22/07/14:  http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226847.pdf
  18. Human Rights Council, Human Rights Council 26th session, Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, (United Nations General Assembly, 2013), p. 4, accessed 10/03/2016: 
  19. Personal communication. 
  20. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2013 – Mauritania, (United States Department of Labor, 2013), accessed 10/09/14:  http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper
  21. As above. 
  22. Human Rights Council, Human Rights Council 26th session, Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, (United Nations General Assembly, 2013), p. 4, accessed 10/03/2016:  http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Racism/A-HRC-26-49.pdf
  23. "Poverty and Equity Data", The World Bank, accessed 10/03/2016:  http://povertydata.worldbank.org/poverty/region/SSA
  24. 'IOM Combats Food Insecurity in Mauritania', International Organisation for Migration, September 22, 2015, accessed 10/03/2016:  https://www.iom.int/news/iom-combats-food-insecurity-mauritania
  25. Bureau of Labor Affairs, Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report (United States Department of Labor, 2014), p. 2, accessed 10/03/2016:  http://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/child-labor/findings/2014TDA/mauritania.pdf
  26. Human Rights Council, Human Rights Council 26th session, Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, (United Nations General Assembly, 2013), p. 4, accessed 10/03/2016:  http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Racism/A-HRC-26-49.pdf
  27. 'Birth Certificates Issued by Mali Open Doors for Mauritanian Refugee Children', United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, April 20, 2015, accessed 2/10/15:  http://www.unhcr.org/5534fc0f1b.html
  28. 'Mauritania: WFP Continues to Support Refugees Fleeing Mali Violence', World Food Programme, May 28, 2015, accessed 02/10/15:  https://www.wfp.org/stories/search-food-and-peace-wfp-supports-refugees-fleeing-violence-mali
  29. Misha Hussain, 'Slaves, Fake Refugees and Lentils: the Mbera Camp in Mauritania', Trust, October 9, 2013, accessed 02/10/15:  http://www.trust.org/item/20131009133413-snelw/
  30. "2015 UNHCR Country Operations Profile – Mauritania", UNHCR, accessed 02/10/15:  http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49e486026.html
  31. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Trafficking in Persons Report: Mauritania Country Narrative, (United States Department of State, 2015), p. 242, accessed 2/10/15:  http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243560.pdf
  32. 'IOM Holds Training of Trainers Workshop on Human Trafficking in Mauritania', International Organisation for Migration, March 20, 2015, accessed 10/03/2016:  https://www.iom.int/news/iom-holds-training-trainers-workshop-human-trafficking-mauritania
  33. Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Slavery, Including its Causes and Consequences, (United Nations General Assembly, 2010), accessed 10/09/14:  http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/slavery/rapporteur/docs/A.HRC.15.20.Add.2_en.pdf
  34. 'Mauritanian New Anti-Slavery law: Effective Enforcement is the Key – UN Rights Expert', United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner August 21, 2015, accessed 24/03/2016:  http://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=16338&LangID=E
  35. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Trafficking in Persons Report: Mauritania Country Narrative, (United States Department of State, 2015), p. 242, accessed 2/10/15:  http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243560.pdf
  36. Mauritania’s Culture of Impunity for Slavery: Failures of the Administrative, Police and Justice Systems, (Anti-Slavery International, 2013), p. 4, accessed 22/09/14 via personal communication 
  37. John D. Sutter, 'Slavery's Last Stronghold', The CNN Freedom Project, March 17, 2012:  http://edition.cnn.com/interactive/2012/03/world/mauritania.slaverys.last.stronghold/index.html
  38. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons Trafficking in Persons Report: Mauritania Country Narrative, (United States Department of State, 2015), p. 242, accessed 2/10/15:  http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243560.pdf
  39. Creating a National Agency for the Fight Against the Legacy of Slavery, (National Commission for Human Rights in Mauritania, March 21, 2013), accessed 05/09/14:  http://www.cndh.mr/content/view/180/1/
  40. 'UN Expert Urges Mauritania to Take More Vigorous Efforts to Eliminate Slavery', United Nations News Centre, February 27, 2014, accessed: 05/09/14:  http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=47243#.VAltsfmSzUw
  41. Mauritania’s Culture of Impunity for Slavery: Failures of the Administrative, Police and Justice Systems, (Anti-Slavery International, 2013), p. 4, accessed 22/09/14 via personal communication 
  42. 'Mauritania creates new courts to try slavery cases,' Daily Mail Australia, December 12, 2015, accessed 01/04/2016:  http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-3356335/Mauritania-creates-new-courts-try-slavery-cases.html
  43. Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Slavery, Including its Causes and Consequences, (United Nations General Assembly, 2010), accessed 10/09/14:  http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/slavery/rapporteur/docs/A.HRC.15.20.Add.2_en.pdf
  44. 'Mauritania becomes the second African country to commit to ending modern slavery', International Labour Organization, March 14, 2016, accessed 29/03/16:  http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_459559/lang--en/index.htm
  45. Megan O’ Toole, 'Mauritanians head to polls amid dissent', Al Jazeera, June 19, 2014, accessed 05/09/14:  http://m.aljazeera.com/story/201461874846807471
  46. 'Biram Dah Abeid Still Imprisoned: Latest Developments', Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation, July 14, 2015, accessed 10/03/2016:  http://unpo.org/article/17712
  47. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, 'Trafficking in Persons Report: Mauritania Country Narrative, (United States Department of State, 2015), p. 241, accessed 2/10/15:  http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243560.pdf
  48. 'IOM Holds Training of Trainers Workshop on Human Trafficking in Mauritania', International Organisation for Migration, March 20, 2015, accessed 10/03/2016:  https://www.iom.int/news/iom-holds-training-trainers-workshop-human-trafficking-mauritania
  49. As above. 
  50. Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Slavery, Including its Causes and Consequences (United Nations General Assembly, 2010), accessed 10/09/14:  http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/slavery/rapporteur/docs/A.HRC.15.20.Add.2_en.pdf
  51. John D Sutter, 'Slavery's Last Stronghold', The CNN Freedom Project, March 17, 2012, accessed 10/03/16:  http://edition.cnn.com/interactive/2012/03/world/mauritania.slaverys.last.stronghold/index.html
  52. 'Jemal Oumar, 'Mauritania Uses Mosques to Fight Slavery', All Africa, December 17, 2014, accessed 10/03/16:  http://allafrica.com/stories/201412180783.html
  53. Key recommendation from Anti-Slavery International Mauritania country report, information retrieved through personal communication 
  54. "Field Listing – Exports", The World Fact Book, accessed 10/03/2016:  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2050.html#mr