1
Country Study
20 of 167Prevalence Index Rank

Thailand

  • 425,500 Estimate number living in Modern Slavery
  • 0.63% Estimate percentage of population living in Modern Slavery
  • 47.54/100 Vulnerability to Modern Slavery
  • B Government Response Rating
  • 67,959,000 Population
  • $15,735 GDP (PPP)

Prevalence

How many people are in modern slavery in Thailand?

The 2016 Global Slavery Index estimates 425,500 people or 0.63% of the total population live in conditions of modern slavery in Thailand.


Country Findings of Prevalence

425,500

Estimate number enslaved


Forced labour

Human trafficking for forced labour in the Thai fishing industry (on both the seafaring and processing sides) enslaves men, children and women from the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS).[2] In the US$7 billion industry,[3] seafaring labourers, often young men and boys, endure brutal treatment that includes severe and frequent physical abuse and threats thereof, excessive and inhumane working hours, sleep and food deprivation, forced use of methamphetamines, and long trips at sea confined to the vessel.[4] Thailand's fishing industry is reliant on trans-shipments at sea to reduce expenditure on fuel and sustain constant fishing[5] meaning that some long-haul trawlers and the fishermen remain at sea for years at a time. Traumatised victims have reported witnessing the vessels' captains excessively and violently abusing and murdering other workers, and captains abandoning overboard workers at sea.[6] Due to overfishing in the Gulf of Thailand and Andaman Sea, fishing vessels are forced to operate far from shore, sometimes travelling along the coastlines of Indonesia and other neighbouring countries. Both jurisdictionally and practically, this makes monitoring costly and difficult. This situation is exacerbated by poor registration and licencing of fishing vessels in which many operate under layers of false documentation.[7]

Exploitation in seafood pre-processing facilities is also evident, with reports of men, women and children from Myanmar, Cambodia and Laos working excessive hours in oppressive and abusive conditions.

Skilled Thai migrants move toward stronger economies, such as those in the United States, Europe, Israel, East Asia and Australia. Official numbers from the Ministry of Labour's Office for Thai Workers Going Overseas recorded 143,101 Thai citizens moving abroad for work in 2012;[8] however, others also migrate via irregular channels.[9] The vast majority (around 84 percent) of overseas Thai workers are men, working in the construction, agricultural and manufacturing industries.[10] Thai migrant workers supply the majority of labour for Israel's agriculture. In 2015, serious labour abuses against the workforce were uncovered including excessive work hours (sometimes up to 17 hours/day), low wages, inadequate and unsanitary living conditions and exposure to harmful pesticides with unsatisfactory safety equipment.[11]

Women overseas-workers tend to find employment in private households or the entertainment or service sectors such as restaurants.[12] According to World Bank data, approximately US$5.69 billion in personal remittances made up around 1.47 percent of Thailand's US$387 billion Gross Domestic Product in 2013.[13] Thai migrants often must pay significant fees for the migration and recruitment processes (sometimes up to a year's wages) and they are vulnerable to exploitation by recruiters and/or employers; in places where it is available, assistance for exploited workers can be difficult to access in unfamiliar settings.[14]

Domestic workers are predominantly females from rural Thailand (including ethnic minorities), Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar, some of whom are the children of migrants working formally and informally in Thailand. Victims often report that their employers physically and sexually abuse them, confine them within the home, withhold their pay and withhold their identification documents, all of which render the victims' ability to escape from their exploitation much more difficult, or impossible.[15]

Commercial sexual exploitation

Thailand's sex industry is reported to be a site for the commercial sexual exploitation of children, both boys and girls. The profile of CSE victims is difficult to define—older teenage girls (15— 17) and young women are commonly found in entertainment hotspots, bars and hotels. On the streets, the age of victims tends to be younger (under 17) with many children performing survival sex and a higher prevalence of young boys available to service the demands of male tourists.[16] They experience greater transmission rates of sexually-transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS) often as a result of being forced to provide sexual services to clients without condom use.[17]

Victims from Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam have been identified in Thailand while some victims from Bangladesh, Pakistan, Vietnam, North Korea and China transit through Thailand on route to Indonesia, the United States, Western Europe, Singapore and Russia.[18] Of the 595 victims of human trafficking identified by the government in 2014, 222 were victims of commercial sexual exploitation, most of whom were girls from Laos and Thailand.[19] However, these statistics refer only to those victims formally identified by the government.

Child soldiers

Armed violence, attacks against civilians and conflict between local armed groups and the government continues to plague the southern border of Thailand.[20] Children are recruited into non-state armed groups where they are trained to be lookouts, informers and/or combatants.[21] Little comprehensive research exists on the scale of involvement of children in armed groups in Thailand. However, a 2015 Child Soldiers International study found children as young as 14 participated in hostilities.[22] Children allegedly associated with armed groups continue to face administrative detention[23] contrary to their need for shelter and rehabilitation.

Uzbekistan is the world’s sixth largest producer of cotton. During the annual cotton harvest, citizens are subjected to statesanctioned forced labour. Monitoring by international organisations has meant the government has begun to take steps to improve the situation, however, reports from the 2015 harvest estimate that over one million people were forced to work.

Photo credit, Simon Buxton/Anti-Slavery International

Vulnerability

What factors explain or predict the prevalence of modern slavery in Thailand?

Over the past decade, significant structural differences in population demographics and economic development between Thailand and neighbouring countries have transformed the available workforce.[29] As an increasingly well-educated Thai population shun poorly-paid work in unglamorous sectors— predominantly in fishing, construction, agriculture, domestic services and small manufacturing businesses[30] —migrant workers play a critical role in filling these labour shortages.[31] Workers, particularly from neighbouring Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar, who often use irregular channels of migration into Thailand, are particularly vulnerable to exploitation. Employment brokers on both sides of the border—even through the legal immigration process—can knowingly or unwittingly place migrants in the hands of exploitative employers.[32]


Average Vulnerability Score

47.54/100


CountryCivil & Political ProtectionsSocial, Health, & Economic RightsPersonal SecurityRefugees & ConflictMean
Thailand49.2328.6248.9763.3347.54

Migrant workers in Thailand may migrate through MoU procedures (signed in 2002/2003 with Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar), the national verification process (NV) or at One Stop Service Centres (OSSCs) established in 2014.[33] Despite these efforts to provide options for regular migration and regularisation, in 2015, the International Labour Organisation maintained concerns for an unknown but presumably a considerable number of workers with irregular status.[34] Many migrant workers are not provided with a visa, but a stay of deportation, allowing them to work for one employer in one district for a year at a time before expulsion from the country.[35] This system heightens the vulnerability to exploitation by creating a compliant workforce labouring under the threat of deportation. Extortion of money is common—employers demand money for work permits and police officers fine workers who are caught outside their district. Workers are also unable to send their children to school.[36] The Social Security Fund, which provides social protection to migrant workers and their families, does not extend to workers in the informal sector or on fishing boats.[37] For those trapped in situations of modern slavery, the risk of fines, arrest and deportation, coupled with language barriers, prevents victims coming forward.

The risk of arrest and deportation is also high for refugees and asylum seekers in Thailand, many of whom are vulnerable to trafficking and forced labour. Thailand is not a party to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol, meaning many asylum seekers are treated by Thai authorities as illegal migrants. As at June 2015, 625,256 people were registered with UNHCR, which includes 110,372 refugees, 8,166 asylum seekers and 506,197 stateless people.[38]

Thailand has one of the largest stateless populations of any country. There are as many as 450,000 Hill Tribe ethnic people in Northern Thailand that remain without citizenship despite being born in the country, being legally eligible for Thai citizenship and waiting for their applications to be approved for several years. Hill Tribe people face some hurdles in their application for citizenship: navigating a complex bureaucracy in a language they do not speak, living in remote areas with limited access to the required administrative offices and/or relying on misinformed government officials that have little political incentive to approve the applications. Even if Hill Tribe people know their legal rights and recognise the importance, it can take up to 10 years for their citizenship applications to be approved.[39]

The lack of citizenship rights for Hill Tribe minorities makes them particularly vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. They are much more likely to migrate for economic reasons, including paying a middleman. They also lack the legal documentation to take out formal loans, increasing the likelihood of taking informal loans for financial emergencies, making them more vulnerable to debt bondage. Furthermore, and because of their undocumented status, Hill Tribe minorities are also much less likely to call the police if they believe they have been subjected to criminal exploitation, allowing perpetrators to abuse or exploit ethnic minorities with little fear of actually being held accountable for their crimes, so there continues to be a culture of impunity when it comes to trafficking in persons.[40]

Migrant, Hill Tribe, refugee, stateless, and street working children are particularly vulnerable to CSE and forced begging. These groups can experience high poverty, pressure to support their family, face xenophobic and discriminatory attitudes from Thais, lack community support and have limited or no access to health care or schooling, which has further implications for future employment and livelihood opportunities.[41]

Police complicity in human trafficking crimes continued to be reported in 2015. Thailand's most senior police investigator into human trafficking fled to Australia to seek political asylum, fearing for his life after he uncovered complicity of influential figures in the Thai Government, military and police.[42] NGOs reported official corruption is a significant barrier to justice for victims, including preventing victims from testifying in cases due to their mistrust of police.[43] The presence of police in commercial sexual establishments, as either clients or complicit in accepting bribes, fuelled a perception of police corruption. This is similarly noted in the fishing industry where the business interests of some public officials conflict with formal duties.

As Thai nationals seek higher-paid employment opportunities abroad, some are falling victim to forced labour and CSE abroad. Victims have been identified globally.

From the 'Less than Human' series. A large cargo boat is seen in Songkla Port, Thailand. 09/03/2014. Photographer Chris Kelly worked undercover to expose the link between prawns being sold in big name supermarkets, and the slaves who live and work on Thai fishing boats miles out to sea.

Photo credit, Chris Kelly

Government Response

How is the Thailand Government tackling modern slavery?

Examining the Thai response to combating modern slavery must be considered in light of the new government led by the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO) who took control of the government in a coup d'—tat in May 2014. On 31 March 2015, nationwide enforcement of the Martial Law Act of 1914 was replaced with section 44 of the interim Constitution, providing unlimited administrative, legislative and judiciary powers to Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha in his capacity as the NCPO chairman without any oversight or accountability.[44] The interim constitution also absolves anyone carrying out actions on behalf of the NCPO of all legal liability.[45] In September 2015, a 247-person commission rejected a draft constitution prepared by the Constitution Drafting Committee, extending military rule under the interim document until 2017.[46] These developments point to a worrying trend of the government being principally concerned with consolidating its power though experts suggest they will combat trafficking to the extent it assists the country's economic interests.[47]


Government Response Rating

B


Throughout 2015, the Thai Government faced unprecedented pressure to tackle forced labour in the fishing sector. In April 2015, the European Commission put Thailand on formal notice for not taking sufficient measures to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU)[48] under threat of a trade ban which could see Thailand lose up to US$1.4m a year in seafood exports.[49]

The government have reportedly accelerated their efforts to combat exploitation and avoid trade sanctions, including the creation of the Command Centre for Combating Illegal Fishing in May 2015 to address IUU fishing.[50] Since the Centre was established, the Deputy National Police Chief reported the investigation of 36 cases, arrests of 102 suspects, and rescue of 130 presumed trafficking victims.[51] The first major reform of fishing legislation in over 50 years—the Royal Ordinance on Fisheries B.E. 2558 2015—came into force on 15 November 2015 with the objective of eliminating illegal fishing and promoting sustainable fishing. The law is being implemented by 28 port-in-port-out (PiPo) Centres and officers from the Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Labour, Marine Department and Mobile Team Units. To promote understanding of these major legal changes, a 'fishermen's' legal handbook has been published.[52] Though these legal reforms were long overdue, the lack of consultation with workers' organisations and industry associations was a missed opportunity, with some concerns the suspension of unlicensed vessels will force Thai boat owners into other illegal activities.[53] For the migrant fishermen themselves, despite the creation of the One Stop Service Centre for the registration of migrant workers,[54] organisations reported in 2015 that the hoped-for large-scale registration and regularisation had not occurred. Almost all workers in the Thai fishing sector remain unregistered.[55]

Thailand took new steps to combat the CSE of children, particularly their abuse for pornography. In May 2015, the National Legislative Assembly of Thailand voted unanimously to amend The Criminal Code of Thailand to criminalise child pornography.[56] This brings Thailand's legislation in line with the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. [57] The Bill prescribes punishment of up to five years' imprisonment for mere possession of child pornography, up to seven years for distribution, and up to 10 years for production and trade. The government also made efforts to prosecute some perpetrators of CSE of children—in June 2015, following extensive investigations, Pra Chai, a Buddhist monk and leader of a trafficking ring, was sentenced to 124 years in prison for his involvement in the human trafficking and sexual exploitation of teenage boys. This was the sixth conviction of a Buddhist monk for involvement in a trafficking ring since 2014.[58]

Also in 2015, the government approved a change in the Thai Nationality Act to allow citizenship applications to be approved at the district and provincial levels, a move which will significantly increase the efficiency and speed at which these are processed. Before this change, the law required that all citizenship applications be submitted and approved at the district, provincial and national levels by several committees and subcommittees. One international organisation reported 426 of their clients had their pending citizenship applications approved shortly after the government enacted this change.[59] This is a positive first step in addressing the vulnerabilities of a significantly large sector of the Thai population.

In addition to the significant legislative improvements over the past year, in August 2015 Thailand established a new court in the special division of the Criminal Court devoted solely to trying human trafficking cases.[60] A second special court was created to hear cases related to corruption and misbehaviour by government officials.[61] The challenge for the Thai Government is now effectively implementing these legislative changes and using the courts.

While Thailand's Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act is a comprehensive piece of legislation, implementation and enforcement were skewed toward certain sectors in 2015. Despite the rhetoric of the National Policy Strategies and Measures to Prevent and Suppress Trafficking in Persons (2011—2016), the government's efforts remain disconnected to the reality of exploitation on the ground. The majority of the RTG's efforts focus on addressing the sexual exploitation of women and children, with limited focus on exploitation of workers in the construction and agricultural sectors, particularly in southern Thailand, and in the domestic service sector.

The Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS) is responsible for the provision of assistance and protection to victims of trafficking and throughout 2015 continued to operate shelters and provide rehabilitative support. Despite this, these services lack specialisation; some victims are prevented from leaving, and victims are unable to work. Many of the support services provided to child victims of trafficking for sexual purposes come from INGOs and NGOs in the country.[62]

Rajshahi, Bangladesh, January 2013. Dipa is 13 years old and has been engaged in prostitution for five months. She used to go to school, but stopped in class three after her family could no longer afford to send her. Her two sisters are also engaged in prostitution, but clients prefer to visit Dipa as she is the youngest of the three. She gets between four or five clients and earns about 1,200 Taka (US$15) a day.

Photo credit, Pep Bonet/ NOOR

Recommendations

What do we recommend

Government

  • Improve victim identification and protection.
  • Make far more effective use of the 2003 MoU with Myanmar on Migrant Workers for the safe migration of migrants from Myanmar, and grant these workers employment-based visas that allow the workers to change employers without losing legal status and having to obtain their first employer's permission.
  • Record and report all cases of modern slavery in a single national database, including details on the arrest, prosecution and conviction of offenders, disaggregated by age, sex and type of exploitation.[63]
  • Investigate and prosecute modern slavery cases particularly those involving labour exploitation and/or complicity of law enforcement officials, justice officials, monks, and teachers.
  • Reform labour laws to allow migrant workers the right to create or join an existing union.
  • Create supply chain transparency laws to ensure the labour practices are aligned with international standards.
  • Criminalise the recruitment and use of children in state or non-state armed forces
  • Ratify the 1951 Refugee Convention and work with UNHCR to deliver services to asylum seekers

Business

  • Businesses importing Thai seafood products conduct in-depth supply chain mapping exercise, including subcontractors multiple tiers deep, to identify product origin.
  • Conduct social audits on suppliers identified as high risk, ensuring interviews with migrant workers are conducted in a safe environment, and that workers voices are sought in feedback processes.
  • Work with suppliers to develop corrective action plans and recourse for workers found exploited in supply chains. This may include systems to pay back workers held in debt bondage and compensating underpaid workers.

Footnotes

  1. Bureau of International Labour Affairs, Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labour Report: Thailand, (United States Department of Labour, 2014), accessed 06/02/16:  http://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/child-labor/thailand.htm
  2. Elaine Pearson, Sureeporn Punpuing et al., "The Mekong Challenge - Underpaid, Overworked and Overlooked: The Realities of Young Migrant Workers in Thailand (Volume One)," (International Labour Organization, 2006), 10,  http://www.ilo.org/asia/whatwedo/publications/WCMS_BK_PB_67_EN/lang--en/index.htm
  3. Dean Irvine, 'Slaves at Sea: Report into Thai Fishing Industry Finds Abuse of Migrant Workers', CNN, March 6, 2014, accessed 04/02/16:  http://edition.cnn.com/2014/03/06/world/asia/thailand-fishing-modern-slavery-report/index.html
  4. Caught at Sea: Forced Labour and Trafficking in Fisheries, (International Labour Organization, Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour, 2013), p. 15, pp. 19–20, accessed 04/02/16:  http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/forced-labour/publications/WCMS_214472/lang--en/index.htm
  5. Thailand’s Seafood Slaves: Human Trafficking, Slavery and Murder in Kantang’s Fishing Industry, (Environmental Justice Foundation, 2015), accessed 15/03/16:  http://ejfoundation.org/sites/default/files/public/EJF-Thailand-Seafood-Slaves-low-res.pdf
  6. Exploitation of Cambodian Men at Sea, (United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking, 2009), p. 5, accessed 15/08/14,  http://www.no-trafficking.org/reports_docs/siren/siren_cb3.pdf
  7. Personal communication. 
  8. Note: This figure includes new deployments and contract renewal, labelled ʻre-entryʼ. Number of Thai Workers Deployed, by Destination, (Ministry of Labour, Office for Thai Workers Going Overseas, 2012,) accessed through personal communication. 
  9. Suttiporn Bunmak, 'Migrant Networks in Thailand and Malaysia: Irregular Nayu Workers in Tom Yam Restaurants in Kuala Lumper', (Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, University of Wollongong, 2010), accessed 30/07/14:  http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4317&context=theses
  10. Jerrold W. Huguet, and Aphichat Chamratrithirong, eds., Thailand Migration Report 2011 - Migration for development in Thailand: Overview and tools for Policymakers, (International Labour Organization, 2011), p. 14 & p. 39, accessed 06/02/16:  http://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/tmr_2011.pdf
  11. A Raw Deal: Abuse of Thai Workers in Israel’s Agricultural Sector, (Human Rights Watch, 2015), accessed 14/01/16:  https://www.hrw.org/report/2015/01/21/raw-deal/abuse-thai-workers-israels-agricultural-sector
  12. Jerrold W. Huguet, and Aphichat Chamratrithirong, eds., Thailand Migration Report 2011 – Migration for Development in Thailand: Overview and Tools for Policymakers, (International Labour Organization, 2011), p. 39, accessed 14/01/16:  http://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/tmr_2011.pdf
  13. "Personal Remittances, Received (Current US$) – Thailand 2013", World Bank, accessed 30/07/14:  http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.TRF.PWKR.CD.DT/countries/TH?display=default
  14. Jerrold W. Huguet, and Aphichat Chamratrithirong, eds., Thailand Migration Report 2011 – Migration for Development in Thailand: Overview and Tools for Policymakers, (International Labour Organization, 2011), pp.39–48, accessed 10/01/16:  http://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/tmr_2011.pdf
  15. Allan Beesey, From Lao PDR to Thailand and Home Again: The Repatriation of Trafficking Victims and Other Exploited Women and Girl Workers - A Study of 124 Cases, (International Organization for Migration, 2004), p. 21, 16/03/16:  http://bit.ly/1R5DSeG
  16. Situational Analysis of the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Thailand, (ECPAT International, 2015), p. 39, accessed 09/02/16: 
  17. Rebecca Surtees, After Trafficking: Experiences and Challenges in the (Re)Integration of Trafficked Persons in the Greater Mekong Sub-region, (United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking /NEXUS Institute, 2013), p. 134, accessed 09/02/16:  http://un-act.org/publication/view/trafficking-experiences-challenges-reintegration-trafficked-persons-greater-mekong-sub-region/
  18. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, 2015 Trafficking in Persons Report: Thailand Country Narrative, (United States Department of State, 2015), accessed 09/02/16:  http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243562.pdf
  19. 'Thailand’s Trafficking in Persons Report 2014: Country Report, (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2014), p. 40, accessed 06/02/16:  http://www.mfa.go.th/main/en/media-center/14/54368-Thailand's-Trafficking-in-Persons-2014-Countr.html
  20. United Nations General Assembly Security Council, 'Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict (A/69/926-S/2015/409)', (United Nations, 2015), accessed 14/02/16:  http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/69/926&Lang=E&Area=UNDOC
  21. "Thailand", Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, June 2015, accessed 06/02/16:  https://childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/countries/thailand/
  22. Southern Thailand: Ongoing recruitment and use of children by armed groups, (Child Soldiers International, January 2015), accessed 14/02/16:  http://www.child-soldiers.org/research_report_reader.php?id=799
  23. "Thailand", Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, June 2015, accessed 06/02/16:  https://childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/countries/thailand/
  24. Silvia di Gaetano, 'How to Solve Southeast Asia’s Refugee Crisis', The Diplomat, September 28, 2015, accessed 06/02/16:  http://thediplomat.com/2015/09/how-to-solve-southeast-asias-refugee-crisis/
  25. 'World Report 2016: Thailand', (Human Rights Watch, 2016), accessed 17/01/16:  https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2016/country-chapters/thailand
  26. Paul Chambers, 'Thailand Must End its Own Rohingya Atrocity', The Diplomat, October 23, 2015, accessed 14/01/16:  http://thediplomat.com/2015/10/thailand-must-end-its-own-rohingya-atrocity/
  27. 'Malaysia, Indonesia, but not Thailand, Agree to Take in Rohingya Migrants', The Japan Times, May 21, 2015, accessed 16/03/16:  http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2015/05/21/asia-pacific/social-issues-asia-pacific/malaysia-indonesia-will-take-boat-people-u-s-will-help-thailand-balks/#.VtQEU_l97IV
  28. Simon Lewis, '4 Things to Know About Thailand’s Trial of 92 Alleged Human Traffickers', Time, March 18, 2016, accessed 16/03/16:  http://time.com/4263868/thailand-trial-92-human-trafficking/
  29. International Labour Organisation , 'Employment Practices and Working Conditions in Thailand’s Fishing Sector', (ILO Tripartite Action to Protect the Rights of Migrant Workers within and from the Greater Mekong Subregion, 2013), accessed 15/03/16:  http://www.ilo.org/dyn/migpractice/docs/184/Fishing.pdf
  30. Personal communication. 
  31. Jerrold W. Huguet, ed., 'Thailand Migration Report 2014', (United Nations Thematic Working Group on Migration in Thailand, 2014), accessed 15/03/16:  http://th.iom.int/images/report/TMR_2014.pdf
  32. Transnational Organised Crime in East Asia and the Pacific, (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2013), p. 8, accessed 14/08/14:  http://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/Studies/TOCTA_EAP_web.pdf
  33. Review of the Effectiveness of the MOUs in Managing Labour Migration Between Thailand and Neighbouring Countries, (ILO Tripartite Action to Protect the Rights of Migrant Workers within and from the Greater Mekong Subregion, 2015), accessed 16/03/16:  http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_356542.pdf
  34. As above. 
  35. Personal communication; please note migrant workers in the seafood sector can change employers and districts, as noted in: Trafficking in Persons Report 2015: The Royal Thai Government’s Response, (The Royal Thai Government, 2015), p. 48, accessed 12/03/2016: 
  36. Personal communication. 
  37. Jerrold W. Huguet, ed., Thailand Migration Report 2014, (United Nations Thematic Working Group on Migration in Thailand), 2014, accessed 16/02/16:  http://th.iom.int/images/report/TMR_2014.pdf
  38. "2015 UNHCR Country Operations Profile – Thailand", UNHCR, accessed 08/02/16:  http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49e489646.html
  39. Personal communication. 
  40. Personal communication. 
  41. "Situational Analysis of the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Thailand', (ECPAT International, 2015), p. 21, accessed 04/01/16: 
  42. Gay Alcorn, Keryn Reynolds & Margaret Simons, 'Revealed: Thailand’s Most Senior Human Trafficking Investigator to Seek Political Asylum in Australia', The Guardian, December 10, 2015, accessed 20/01/16:  http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/dec/10/thailands-most-senior-human-trafficking-investigator-to-seek-political-asylum-in-australia
  43. Personal communication. 
  44. 'Thailand: Interim Constitution Provides Sweeping Powers', Human Rights Watch, July 24, 2014, accessed 04/02/16: ; 'Thai Junta to replace martial law but retain key powers', Al Jazeera America, March 31, 2015, accessed 07/01/16:  https://www.hrw.org/news/2014/07/24/thailand-interim-constitution-provides-sweeping-powers, http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/3/31/prayuth-to-replace-martial-law-but-retain-powers.html
  45. World Report 2016: Thailand, (Human Rights Watch, 2016), accessed 24/04/16:  https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2016/country-chapters/thailand
  46. 'Thailand constitution: Military’s council rejects draft', BBC News, September 6, 2015; World Report 2016: Thailand, (Human Rights Watch, 2016), accessed 24/04/16:  http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-34149523, https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2016/country-chapters/thailand
  47. Personal communication. 
  48. 'EU Warns Thailand on Illegal Fishing', International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, May 8, 2015, accessed 14/01/16:  http://www.ictsd.org/bridges-news/biores/news/eu-warns-thailand-on-illegal-fishing
  49. Emanuel Stoakes, Chris Kelly & Annie Kelly, 'Revealed: How the Thai Fishing Industry Trafficks, Imprisons and Enslaves', The Guardian, July 20, 2015, accessed 15/02/16:  http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/jul/20/thai-fishing-industry-implicated-enslavement-deaths-rohingya
  50. 'Press releases: Thailand’s Progress in Combating IUU Fishing', The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Thailand, January 14, 2016, accessed 10/02/16:  http://www.mfa.go.th/main/en/media-center/14/63733-Thailand%E2%80%99s-Progress-in-Combating-IUU-Fishing.html
  51. 'Thai Authorities Say Fishing Industry Crackdown Intensified', Associated Press The Big Story, February 1, 2016, accessed 09/02/16:  http://bigstory.ap.org/article/94b4719b851b46039127e1d24f8f2ca4/thai-authorities-say-fishing-industry-crackdown-intensified
  52. 'Press releases: Thailand’s Progress in Combating IUU Fishing', The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Thailand, January 14, 2016, accessed 08/02/16:  http://www.mfa.go.th/main/en/media-center/14/63733-Thailand%E2%80%99s-Progress-in-Combating-IUU-Fishing.html
  53. Emanuel Stoakes, Chris Kelly & Annie Kelly, ‘Revealed: How the Thai fishing Industry Trafficks, Imprisons and Enslaves', The Guardian, July 20, 2015, accessed 07/02/16:  http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/jul/20/thai-fishing-industry-implicated-enslavement-deaths-rohingya
  54. Jerrold W. Huguet, ed., Thailand Migration Report 2014, (United Nations Thematic Working Group on Migration in Thailand, 2014), accessed 09/02/16:  http://th.iom.int/images/report/TMR_2014.pdf
  55. Personal communication. 
  56. 'UNODC Assists Thailand to Criminalise Possession of Child Sex Abuse Material', United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Southeast Asia and the Pacific, May 18, 2015, accessed 07/01/16:  https://www.unodc.org/southeastasiaandpacific/en/2015/05/childhood-sex-abuse-material/story.html
  57. Situational Analysis of the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Thailand, (ECPAT International, 2015), p. 7, accessed 06/01/16: 
  58. 'Trafficking Ring Run by Thai Monk Crumbles with Leader Behind Bars', International Justice Mission, June 2, 2015, accessed 06/01/16:  https://www.ijm.org/articles/trafficking-ring-run-thai-monk-crumbles-leader-behind-bars
  59. Personal communication. 
  60. 'Human Trafficking Court Opens, More Traffickers Arrested', Thai Anti-Human Trafficking Action, August 10, 2015, accessed 06/01/16:  http://www.thaianti-humantraffickingaction.org/Home/?p=1577
  61. As above. 
  62. Situational Analysis of the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Thailand, (ECPAT International, 2015), p. 8. 
  63. As above.