Global Findings

In 2016, we estimate that 45.8 million people are in some form of modern slavery in 167 countries

This estimate draws on data from random sample, nationally representative surveys conducted by Gallup.

Prevalence

What is the estimated prevalence of modern slavery country by country, and what is the absolute number by population?

The 2016 Global Slavery Index estimates that 45.8 million people are subject to some form of modern slavery in the world today. The Index presents a ranking of 167 countries based on the proportion of the population that is estimated to be in modern slavery.


Global Findings of Prevalence

45.8m

Estimate number enslaved

58%

Of those living in slavery

are in 5 countries

* Based on nationally representative Gallup survey data

The countries with the highest estimated prevalence of modern slavery by the proportion of their population are North Korea, Uzbekistan, Cambodia, India, and Qatar. In North Korea, there is pervasive evidence that government-sanctioned forced labour occurs in an extensive system of prison labour camps while North Korean women are subjected to forced marriage and commercial sexual exploitation in China and other neighbouring states. In Uzbekistan, the government continues to subject its citizens to forced labour in the annual cotton harvest.

Those countries with the highest absolute numbers of people in modern slavery are India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Uzbekistan. Several of these countries provide the low-cost labour that produces consumer goods for markets in Western Europe, Japan, North America and Australia.

The countries with the lowest estimated prevalence of modern slavery by the proportion of their population are Luxembourg, Ireland, Norway, Denmark, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden and Belgium, the United States and Canada, and Australia and New Zealand. These countries generally have more economic wealth, score higher on government response, have low levels of conflict, and are politically stable with a willingness to combat modern slavery.

RankCountryEstimated percent of population in modern slaveryEstimated number in modern slaveryPopulation
1North Korea4.3731,100,00025,155,000
2Uzbekistan3.9731,236,60031,125,000
3Cambodia1.648256,80015,578,000
4India1.40018,354,7001,311,051,000
5Qatar1.35630,3002,235,000
6Pakistan1.1302,134,900188,925,000
6Democratic Republic of the Congo1.130873,10077,267,000
6Sudan1.130454,70040,235,000
6Iraq1.130403,80035,730,000
6Afghanistan1.130367,60032,527,000
6Yemen1.130303,20026,832,000
6Syria1.130257,30022,769,000
6South Sudan1.130139,40012,340,000
6Somalia1.130121,90010,787,000
6Libya1.13070,9006,278,000
6Central African Republic1.13055,4004,900,000
7Mauritania1.05843,0004,068,000
8Haiti0.995106,60010,711,000
8Dominican Republic0.995104,80010,528,000
9Myanmar0.956515,10053,897,000
10Bangladesh0.9511,531,300160,996,000
11Gambia0.87817,5001,991,000
12Guatemala0.845138,10016,343,000
13Nepal0.823234,60028,514,000
14Brunei0.8053,400423,000
15Tunisia0.76685,00011,102,000
16Russia0.7321,048,500143,335,000
17Madagascar0.674163,40024,235,000
17Malawi0.674116,10017,215,000
17Zambia0.674109,30016,212,000
17Sierra Leone0.67443,5006,453,000
17Eritrea0.67435,3005,228,000
17Namibia0.67416,6002,459,000
17Lesotho0.67414,4002,135,000
17Swaziland0.6748,7001,287,000
18Colombia0.639308,20048,229,000
18Morocco0.639219,70034,378,000
18Peru0.639200,50031,377,000
18Venezuela0.639198,80031,108,000
18Jordan0.63942,9006,718,000
18Macedonia0.63913,3002,078,000
19Tanzania0.638341,40053,470,000
19Angola0.638159,70025,022,000
19Ivory Coast0.638144,90022,702,000
19Niger0.638127,00019,899,000
19Burkina Faso0.638115,60018,106,000
19Zimbabwe0.63899,60015,603,000
19Chad0.63889,60014,037,000
19Guinea0.63880,50012,609,000
19Rwanda0.63874,10011,610,000
19Burundi0.63871,40011,179,000
19Tajikistan0.63854,1008,482,000
19Togo0.63846,6007,305,000
19Republic of the Congo0.63829,5004,620,000
19Liberia0.63828,7004,503,000
20Egypt0.626572,90091,508,000
20Iran0.626495,30079,109,000
20Turkey0.626480,30076,721,000
20Thailand0.626425,50067,959,000
20Algeria0.626248,30039,667,000
20Uganda0.626244,40039,032,000
20Cameroon0.626146,10023,344,000
20Mali0.626110,20017,600,000
20Lebanon0.62628,7004,591,000
21Papua New Guinea0.62047,2007,619,000
21Guinea-Bissau0.62011,4001,844,000
21Guyana0.6204,800767,000
22Mozambique0.520145,60027,978,000
22Senegal0.52078,70015,129,000
22Botswana0.52011,8002,262,000
22Djibouti0.5204,600888,000
23Nigeria0.481875,500182,202,000
24Poland0.476181,10038,025,000
25Ukraine0.467210,40045,064,000
25Kazakhstan0.46781,60017,488,000
25Azerbaijan0.46745,0009,635,000
25Belarus0.46744,6009,550,000
25Kyrgyzstan0.46727,7005,934,000
25Georgia0.46720,9004,487,000
25Kuwait0.46718,2003,892,000
25Bosnia and Herzegovina0.46717,8003,810,000
25Armenia0.46714,1003,018,000
25Bahrain0.4676,4001,377,000
26Suriname0.4532,500543,000
26Cape Verde0.4532,400521,000
27South Africa0.453248,70054,954,000
27Trinidad and Tobago0.4536,2001,360,000
28Bolivia0.43746,90010,725,000
29Malaysia0.425128,80030,331,000
30Ethiopia0.414411,60099,391,000
31Kenya0.410188,80046,050,000
32South Korea0.404204,90050,672,000
32Argentina0.404175,50043,417,000
32Romania0.40480,20019,849,000
32Ecuador0.40465,30016,144,000
32Greece0.40444,20010,942,000
32Czech Republic0.40442,60010,549,000
32United Arab Emirates0.40437,0009,157,000
32Hong Kong, SAR China0.40429,5007,287,000
32Bulgaria0.40429,0007,176,000
32Serbia0.40428,7007,087,000
32Paraguay0.40426,8006,639,000
32Nicaragua0.40424,6006,082,000
32Costa Rica0.40419,4004,808,000
32Croatia0.40417,1004,225,000
32Panama0.40415,9003,929,000
32Lithuania0.40411,8002,920,000
32Latvia0.4048,0001,979,000
32Estonia0.4045,3001,310,000
32Cyprus0.4044,7001,165,000
32Montenegro0.4042,500622,000
33Philippines0.398401,000100,699,000
34Ghana0.377103,30027,410,000
35Cuba0.33237,80011,390,000
36Mexico0.297376,800127,017,000
37Benin0.29532,10010,880,000
37Honduras0.29523,8008,075,000
37Laos0.29520,0006,802,000
37El Salvador0.29518,1006,127,000
37Turkmenistan0.29515,8005,374,000
37Oman0.29513,2004,491,000
37Moldova0.29510,4003,538,000
37Mongolia0.2958,7002,959,000
37Albania0.2958,6002,906,000
37Kosovo0.2955,4001,845,000
37Gabon0.2955,1001,725,000
37Equatorial Guinea0.2952,500845,000
38Saudi Arabia0.29292,10031,540,000
39Indonesia0.286736,100257,564,000
39Timor-Leste0.2863,5001,235,000
40China0.2473,388,4001,371,738,000
41Japan0.228290,200127,046,000
41Taiwan0.22853,60023,476,640
41Hungary0.22822,5009,836,000
41Slovakia0.22812,4005,426,000
41Uruguay0.2287,8003,432,000
41Slovenia0.2284,7002,066,000
42Sri Lanka0.22145,90020,781,000
43Jamaica0.2125,8002,734,000
43Barbados0.212600284,000
44Italy0.211129,60061,373,000
45Singapore0.1659,2005,563,000
45Mauritius0.1652,1001,265,000
46Chile0.15427,70017,948,000
47Vietnam0.152139,30091,519,000
48Israel0.14011,6008,343,000
49Portugal0.12312,80010,384,000
49Finland0.1236,7005,485,000
49Iceland0.123400331,000
50Netherlands0.10417,50016,896,000
51Brazil0.078161,100207,848,000
52United States0.01857,700320,821,000
52Germany0.01814,50080,738,000
52France0.01812,00066,389,000
52United Kingdom0.01811,70064,856,000
52Spain0.0188,40046,513,000
52Canada0.0186,50035,871,000
52Australia0.0184,30023,772,000
52Belgium0.0182,00011,268,000
52Sweden0.0181,8009,754,000
52Austria0.0181,5008,566,000
52Switzerland0.0181,5008,267,000
52Denmark0.0181,0005,660,000
52Norway0.0189005,188,000
52Ireland0.0188004,659,000
52New Zealand0.0188004,552,000
52Luxembourg0.018100562,000
RankCountryEstimated percent of population in modern slaveryEstimated number in modern slaveryPopulation
* Indicates nationally-representative Gallup survey data or data from multiple systems estimation was available for this country. For surveys, this includes Brazil, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Chile, Dominican Republic, Ghana, Guatemala, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Philippines, Poland, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tunisia, and Vietnam. For MSE, this included the Netherlands and United Kingdom.
RankCountryEstimated percent of population in modern slaveryEstimated number in modern slavery
1India1.40018,354,700
2China0.2473,388,400
3Pakistan1.1302,134,900
4Bangladesh0.9511,531,300
5Uzbekistan3.9731,236,600
6North Korea4.3731,100,000
7Russia0.7321,048,500
8Nigeria0.481875,500
9Democratic Republic of the Congo1.130873,100
10Indonesia0.286736,100
11Egypt0.626572,900
12Myanmar0.956515,100
13Iran0.626495,300
14Turkey0.626480,300
15Sudan1.130454,700
16Thailand0.626425,500
17Ethiopia0.414411,600
18Iraq1.130403,800
19Philippines0.398401,000
20Mexico0.297376,800
21Afghanistan1.130367,600
22Tanzania0.638341,400
23Colombia0.639308,200
24Yemen1.130303,200
25Japan0.228290,200
26Syria1.130257,300
27Cambodia1.648256,800
28South Africa0.453248,700
29Algeria0.626248,300
30Uganda0.626244,400
31Nepal0.823234,600
32Morocco0.639219,700
33Ukraine0.467210,400
34South Korea0.404204,900
35Peru0.639200,500
36Venezuela0.639198,800
37Kenya0.410188,800
38Poland0.476181,100
39Argentina0.404175,500
40Madagascar0.674163,400
41Brazil0.078161,100
42Angola0.638159,700
43Cameroon0.626146,100
44Mozambique0.520145,600
45Ivory Coast0.638144,900
46South Sudan1.130139,400
47Vietnam0.152139,300
48Guatemala0.845138,100
49Italy0.211129,600
50Malaysia0.425128,800
51Niger0.638127,000
52Somalia1.130121,900
53Malawi0.674116,100
54Burkina Faso0.638115,600
55Mali0.626110,200
56Zambia0.674109,300
57Haiti0.995106,600
58Dominican Republic0.995104,800
59Ghana0.377103,300
60Zimbabwe0.63899,600
61Saudi Arabia0.29292,100
62Chad0.63889,600
63Tunisia0.76685,000
64Kazakhstan0.46781,600
65Guinea0.63880,500
66Romania0.40480,200
67Senegal0.52078,700
68Rwanda0.63874,100
69Burundi0.63871,400
70Libya1.13070,900
71Ecuador0.40465,300
72United States0.01857,700
73Central African Republic1.13055,400
74Tajikistan0.63854,100
75Taiwan0.22853,600
76Papua New Guinea0.62047,200
77Bolivia0.43746,900
78Togo0.63846,600
79Sri Lanka0.22145,900
80Azerbaijan0.46745,000
81Belarus0.46744,600
82Greece0.40444,200
83Sierra Leone0.67443,500
84Mauritania1.05843,000
85Jordan0.63942,900
86Czech Republic0.40442,600
87Cuba0.33237,800
88United Arab Emirates0.40437,000
89Eritrea0.67435,300
90Benin0.29532,100
91Qatar1.35630,300
92Republic of the Congo0.63829,500
93Hong Kong, SAR China0.40429,500
94Bulgaria0.40429,000
95Liberia0.63828,700
96Lebanon0.62628,700
97Serbia0.40428,700
98Chile0.15427,700
99Kyrgyzstan0.46727,700
100Israel0.14011,600
101Paraguay0.40426,800
102Nicaragua0.40424,600
103Honduras0.29523,800
104Hungary0.22822,500
105Georgia0.46720,900
106Laos0.29520,000
107Costa Rica0.40419,400
108Kuwait0.46718,200
109El Salvador0.29518,100
110Bosnia and Herzegovina0.46717,800
111Netherlands0.10417,500
112Gambia0.87817,500
113Croatia0.40417,100
114Namibia0.67416,600
115Panama0.40415,900
116Turkmenistan0.29515,800
117Germany0.01814,500
118Lesotho0.67414,400
119Armenia0.46714,100
120Macedonia0.63913,300
121Oman0.29513,200
122Portugal0.12312,800
123Slovakia0.22812,400
124France0.01812,000
125Lithuania0.40411,800
126Botswana0.52011,800
127United Kingdom0.01811,700
128Guinea-Bissau0.62011,400
129Moldova0.29510,400
130Singapore0.1659,200
131Mongolia0.2958,700
132Swaziland0.6748,700
133Albania0.2958,600
134Spain0.0188,400
135Latvia0.4048,000
136Uruguay0.2287,800
137Finland0.1236,700
138Canada0.0186,500
139Bahrain0.4676,400
140Trinidad and Tobago0.4536,200
141Jamaica0.2125,800
142Kosovo0.2955,400
143Estonia0.4045,300
144Gabon0.2955,100
145Guyana0.6204,800
146Slovenia0.2284,700
147Cyprus0.4044,700
148Djibouti0.5204,600
149Australia0.0184,300
150Timor-Leste0.2863,500
151Brunei0.8053,400
152Montenegro0.4042,500
153Equatorial Guinea0.2952,500
154Suriname0.4532,500
155Cape Verde0.4532,400
156Mauritius0.1652,100
157Belgium0.0182,000
158Sweden0.0181,800
159Austria0.0181,500
160Switzerland0.0181,500
161Denmark0.0181,000
162Norway0.018900
163Ireland0.018800
164New Zealand0.018800
165Barbados0.212600
166Iceland0.123400
167Luxembourg0.018100
RankCountryEstimated percent of population in modern slaveryEstimated number in modern slavery
* Indicates nationally-representative Gallup survey data or data from multiple systems estimation was available for this country.

Uzbekistan is the world’s sixth largest producer of cotton. During the annual cotton harvest, citizens are subjected to statesanctioned forced labour. Monitoring by international organisations has meant the government has begun to take steps to improve the situation, however, reports from the 2015 harvest estimate that over one million people were forced to work.

Photo credit, Simon Buxton/Anti-Slavery International

Vulnerability

What factors explain or predict the prevalence of modern slavery?

Vulnerability to modern slavery is affected by a complex interaction of factors related to the presence or absence of protection and respect for rights, physical safety and security, access to the necessities of life such as food, water and health care, and patterns of migration, displacement and conflict. Statistical testing grouped 24 measures of vulnerability into four dimensions covering: 1) civil and political protections, 2) social health and economic rights, 3) personal security, and 4) refugee populations and conflict.

Dimension 1 Civil and Political Protections Dimension 2 Social health and economic rights Dimension 3 Personal security Dimension 4 Refugee populations and conflict
Confidence in judical system Financial inclusion: borrowed any money Financial inclusion: availability of emergency funds Impact of terrorism
Political instability Financial inclusion: received wages Violent crime Internal conflict
Weapons access Cell phone subscriptions Women's physical security Refugees resident
Discrimination: sexuality Social safety net GINI coefficient
Displaced persons Undernourishment Discrimination: intellectual disability
The Index 2016 Government Response Tuberculosis Discrimination: immigrants
Political rights measure Water improved access Discrimination: minorities
CountryCivil & Political ProtectionsSocial, Health, & Economic RightsPersonal SecurityRefugees & ConflictMean
Afghanistan83.0047.3953.3184.5567.06
Albania52.8829.5842.3618.2535.77
Algeria51.0328.1047.0251.4644.40
Angola56.3249.5445.9525.0244.21
Argentina35.6318.5034.0425.3628.38
Armenia53.6627.3842.6324.9037.14
Australia15.1419.8517.4535.4921.98
Austria21.4718.1414.0533.1421.70
Azerbaijan68.9028.2328.1723.0537.09
Bahrain54.4133.1441.4531.2640.07
Bangladesh46.7846.0433.6350.0244.12
Barbados39.7015.4167.001.0030.78
Belarus58.4120.4835.8823.8034.64
Belgium25.4219.8324.0331.2825.14
Benin46.9536.5239.7014.9034.52
Bolivia49.7132.0838.6916.5734.26
Bosnia and Herzegovina58.8825.2132.9926.4335.88
Botswana37.2542.8246.3819.2136.42
Brazil37.9820.4645.8830.7433.77
Brunei60.7830.9999.9963.9363.93
Bulgaria40.4120.5433.7930.5031.31
Burkina Faso59.5540.7740.7325.9841.76
Burundi64.0852.2251.4037.1751.22
Cambodia53.6842.9657.4012.0041.51
Cameroon61.3143.3747.9552.5151.29
Canada17.5923.6415.4836.1123.21
Cape Verde33.3320.3055.4036.3436.34
Central African Republic83.6748.6785.4362.2170.00
Chad70.4749.9647.9840.9452.34
Chile31.2319.7334.2631.3729.15
China55.1226.9043.8452.7844.66
Colombia51.7226.5446.7843.4942.13
Costa Rica36.3524.4033.8223.9729.64
Croatia36.5125.2936.8816.5428.80
Cuba53.6026.6034.0013.9932.05
Cyprus27.6023.2528.9530.9027.67
Czech Republic27.2219.3831.5527.7826.48
Democratic Republic of the Congo78.4256.3356.7282.4368.48
Denmark15.6818.5311.0623.9217.30
Djibouti49.1343.6155.2532.4245.10
Dominican Republic47.9733.8446.3824.3338.13
Ecuador43.6929.2337.7429.9835.16
Egypt51.2527.9062.9654.8549.24
El Salvador49.8829.5853.688.7835.48
Equatorial Guinea56.6640.6246.381.0036.16
Eritrea59.4451.0562.8824.8249.55
Estonia35.9416.8739.3111.1425.81
Ethiopia59.7554.6834.1659.7752.09
Finland22.0719.6919.0822.6620.87
France26.1320.2718.0144.7727.30
Gabon51.5831.5142.3816.9735.61
Gambia59.3029.2774.1822.6346.35
Georgia51.0028.4335.9524.4234.95
Germany23.6119.9720.8140.7626.29
Ghana51.8938.4247.4528.2641.51
Greece37.6422.7438.1038.7734.31
Guatemala48.7534.2557.1220.3340.11
Guinea66.8941.5852.6828.6747.45
Guinea-Bissau62.0840.5070.2522.4748.82
Guyana39.3525.5783.505.8138.56
Haiti57.6856.2058.132.6043.65
Honduras53.7634.8260.1216.3841.27
Hong Kong, SAR China42.2817.5521.4435.6529.23
Hungary23.6620.6935.5623.3025.80
Iceland24.8812.2220.4315.0318.14
India37.0736.6843.8887.7851.35
Indonesia39.1543.3550.3836.0142.22
Iran70.7132.9948.6051.4450.94
Iraq71.2244.9158.0481.1363.83
Ireland19.0722.6220.2133.1323.76
Israel33.6623.6738.2851.8536.87
Italy36.3921.5033.6238.5632.52
Ivory Coast62.0738.7246.2233.4545.11
Jamaica43.2130.9146.138.6832.24
Japan25.2319.0922.1619.1321.40
Jordan48.3927.9754.1637.7342.06
Kazakhstan59.0522.0828.1922.1232.86
Kenya54.5352.8446.7572.2856.60
Kosovo55.1139.2542.1315.9438.11
Kuwait59.2927.9741.3015.8936.11
Kyrgyzstan54.1628.3336.3721.8835.18
Laos56.6434.0153.981.1936.45
Latvia41.9520.2533.2212.9527.09
Lebanon55.3929.3250.9858.0048.42
Lesotho40.3352.2668.239.5842.60
Liberia57.9344.6244.4529.4344.11
Libya77.8522.9981.4453.2158.87
Lithuania35.0920.5834.1016.9426.68
Luxembourg22.9918.649.7649.4325.20
Macedonia49.8124.3844.0624.1135.59
Madagascar50.3750.8752.8615.9942.52
Malawi54.6356.7447.7821.0645.05
Malaysia34.9032.4346.3940.3338.51
Mali64.0434.0831.6957.4146.80
Mauritania65.9640.5449.8530.7446.77
Mauritius29.2424.4926.581.0020.33
Mexico43.0330.3652.8461.8547.02
Moldova47.5228.2038.0414.4132.04
Mongolia39.2236.7440.873.5430.09
Montenegro41.6822.1538.0823.4531.34
Morocco55.8318.5856.0822.1838.17
Mozambique39.9148.4654.4035.8644.65
Myanmar57.8150.1150.5366.9956.36
Namibia39.0043.6851.4218.2738.09
Nepal42.3043.2234.7441.2140.37
Netherlands17.6017.8621.6428.5821.42
New Zealand13.3122.2416.0921.5118.29
Nicaragua43.5331.9239.7923.6734.73
Niger57.7048.1742.1340.3847.10
Nigeria60.9447.8459.7680.8462.34
North Korea71.2048.2762.881.0045.84
Norway17.8819.9014.8534.9021.88
Oman57.6521.0362.8812.6038.54
Pakistan58.4041.9852.7096.7962.47
Panama37.4629.1446.1823.5534.08
Papua New Guinea50.1262.8599.9923.1059.02
Paraguay46.0221.2238.9226.1433.07
Peru43.8531.9844.8130.3337.74
Philippines44.7639.6252.3453.9547.67
Poland34.7619.5029.0723.3326.66
Portugal21.5022.6216.0616.8919.27
Qatar48.7915.2650.5012.3031.71
Republic of the Congo65.1744.6952.4328.9447.81
Romania39.2625.8631.8318.7428.92
Russia57.2118.4740.6657.4743.45
Rwanda55.4447.6546.2342.0047.83
Saudi Arabia64.9430.9237.2028.8440.47
Senegal44.9742.3136.9635.4839.93
Serbia47.8021.7530.2427.0531.71
Sierra Leone50.5753.2941.7217.7040.82
Singapore29.8522.1120.581.0018.39
Slovakia32.4720.9431.6016.4225.36
Slovenia21.8222.0828.5013.7221.53
Somalia73.0364.8255.9774.4667.07
South Africa40.2743.0658.3041.8445.87
South Korea38.2034.6428.9817.3229.78
South Sudan74.7350.7060.8076.1565.59
Spain25.1423.1918.6529.6724.16
Sri Lanka47.0135.1231.8231.0836.26
Sudan80.6454.1246.1885.0466.49
Suriname36.6612.3567.0038.6738.67
Swaziland57.6953.8867.3315.3948.57
Sweden21.3919.7010.8438.6022.63
Switzerland16.9316.6013.6930.9819.55
Syria95.6735.9360.9772.9866.39
Taiwan34.9133.3822.341.7623.09
Tajikistan62.8537.6241.6827.5342.42
Tanzania51.6654.6747.6640.4648.61
Thailand49.2328.6248.9763.3347.54
Timor-Leste38.8848.0768.551.0039.13
Togo64.7839.8247.7824.0944.12
Trinidad and Tobago35.8814.4067.0016.2633.38
Tunisia40.0125.9742.8428.9134.43
Turkey45.4729.3844.1157.5544.13
Turkmenistan68.1428.6543.349.2237.34
Uganda54.8952.1839.4548.7348.81
Ukraine61.9721.3935.8043.4140.64
United Arab Emirates41.7122.6430.7518.3628.37
United Kingdom18.4520.3721.8346.5026.79
United States20.4223.5120.9645.1027.50
Uruguay26.6520.6928.3613.8922.40
Uzbekistan74.6228.3532.0912.1436.80
Venezuela58.8227.7555.4235.9444.48
Vietnam51.1929.9435.221.0029.34
Yemen75.0151.3054.6762.2860.81
Zambia45.1058.7650.0324.4644.59
Zimbabwe60.2852.2548.9226.7847.06
CountryCivil & Political ProtectionsSocial, Health, & Economic RightsPersonal SecurityRefugees & ConflictMean
* Note high presence of missing data for these countries. These results should be interpreted with caution. These countries have less than 50 percent of data available on Dimensions 3 and 4.

From the 'Less than Human' series. A large cargo boat is seen in Songkla Port, Thailand. 09/03/2014. Photographer Chris Kelly worked undercover to expose the link between prawns being sold in big name supermarkets, and the slaves who live and work on Thai fishing boats miles out to sea.

Photo credit, Chris Kelly

Government Response

How are governments tackling modern slavery?

In 2016, 161 countries are included in our assessment of government responses. Due to the ongoing conflict and extreme disruption to government function, we have not included ratings for Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Syria or Yemen.

Of the 161 countries:

  • 124 have criminalised human trafficking in line with the UN Trafficking Protocol.
  • 96 have National Action Plans (NAPs) to coordinate the government’s response.
  • 150 governments provide some form of service for victims of modern slavery.

The governments that have the strongest response to modern slavery are The Netherlands, the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Australia, Portugal, Croatia, Spain, Belgium and Norway. These countries are characterised by strong political will, sufficient resources, and a strong civil society that holds governments to account.


When correlated against GDP (PPP), countries which have a relatively strong response despite fewer resources are the Philippines, Brazil, Georgia, Jamaica, Croatia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Moldova, Albania and Serbia.

Those governments taking the least action to combat modern slavery are North Korea, Iran, Eritrea, Equatorial Guinea, Hong Kong, Central African Republic, Papua New Guinea, Guinea, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and South Sudan. Some of these countries are characterised by government complicity, low levels of political will, or high levels of conflict and political instability.

Some wealthier and more stable countries have also taken little action in combating modern slavery. When correlated against GDP (PPP), these countries include Qatar, Singapore, Kuwait, Brunei, Hong Kong, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Oman, Japan and South Korea.

In 2016, the Walk Free Foundation has included a measure on state-sanctioned forced labour in the government response rating. State-sanctioned forced labour is where the government forces the population, or segments of it, to work under the threat of penalty, and for which the person or population has not offered himself voluntarily. The countries that have systematically forced their population to labour include Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Belarus, China, Eritrea, North Korea, Russia, Swaziland and Vietnam.

Credit RatingCountrySurvivors SupportedCriminal JusticeCoordination & AccountabilityAddressing RiskGovernment & BusinessTotal Score
ANetherlands74.6379.0787.5099.990.0078.43
BBB*United States96.3079.6368.7578.5775.0082.84
BBBUnited Kingdom74.6379.0743.7569.0537.5067.12
BBBSweden72.2262.9675.0073.810.0065.87
BBBAustralia64.4481.8556.2569.0525.0065.34
BBBPortugal58.5273.5268.7583.330.0065.22
BBBCroatia69.6370.1956.2576.190.0064.50
BBBSpain77.0464.0750.0073.810.0064.09
BBBBelgium71.3050.7475.0071.430.0062.36
BBBNorway65.9382.4137.5069.050.0061.47
BBBAustria57.9659.0768.7576.190.0060.16
BBArgentina49.2659.8187.5078.570.0059.79
BBGermany61.6764.8143.7578.570.0059.60
BBDenmark59.8168.5250.0069.050.0058.31
BBMontenegro69.6360.5656.2559.520.0058.27
BBCanada57.4168.5262.5064.290.0058.13
BBGeorgia67.5958.7056.2559.520.0057.22
BBHungary59.8141.8568.7576.190.0057.06
BBBrazil45.5634.4487.5078.5737.5056.85
BBFrance52.5976.8543.7569.050.0055.88
BBNew Zealand53.7047.9643.7588.100.0055.81
BBIreland69.6371.3018.7561.900.0055.81
BBSwitzerland60.1964.8125.0073.810.0055.26
BBMacedonia70.3760.1962.5042.860.0055.16
BBFinland52.7862.0456.2566.670.0054.96
BBSlovenia52.0451.3056.2576.190.0054.80
BBSerbia61.6776.6731.2554.760.0054.40
BBAlbania73.7046.3043.7561.900.0054.34
BBPhilippines46.4862.7850.0078.570.0054.18
BBPoland46.1147.9668.7576.190.0053.97
BBLatvia58.8950.1943.7571.430.0053.79
BBCzech Republic54.8150.7456.2566.670.0053.19
BBJamaica47.7861.8581.2554.760.0052.91
BBMexico45.0063.1550.0073.810.0052.59
BBDominican Republic49.2659.0762.5064.290.0052.49
BBMoldova55.5657.5950.0064.290.0052.41
BBLithuania59.2654.8125.0073.810.0051.82
BBCosta Rica56.4845.5637.5071.430.0051.13
BBCyprus54.2674.4418.7561.900.0050.55
BUnited Arab Emirates63.8936.6756.2557.140.0049.71
BNicaragua44.0766.1156.2552.380.0049.46
BItaly42.5965.9337.5069.050.0049.44
BBangladesh39.4460.3768.7559.520.0049.32
BChile44.6352.5950.0069.050.0049.02
BIsrael49.8147.9650.0061.900.0048.91
BBosnia and Herzegovina57.4143.7031.2569.050.0048.54
BUruguay40.5643.7043.7578.570.0048.29
BColombia44.0741.8543.7573.810.0047.84
BKosovo48.1559.9243.7547.620.0047.72
BSlovakia57.9642.4131.2561.900.0047.66
BNigeria50.7459.6350.0045.240.0047.54
BUganda50.9350.1937.5059.520.0047.36
BGuatemala37.5951.4856.2564.290.0047.22
BNepal42.7838.1575.0061.900.0047.12
BTurkey57.4147.4137.5052.380.0047.06
BParaguay35.9355.5637.5076.190.0046.86
BUkraine62.0447.7812.5061.900.0046.44
BArmenia48.3349.8156.2550.000.0045.75
BEcuador37.2262.2225.0071.430.0045.73
BVietnam45.1934.0762.5066.670.0045.42
BBulgaria43.1538.5243.7571.430.0045.23
BPeru47.7828.3362.5061.900.0044.83
BSouth Africa38.8955.7431.2564.290.0043.98
BSierra Leone44.4445.5643.7554.760.0042.99
BIceland45.3752.2237.5045.240.0042.44
BJordan45.0042.2256.2542.860.0042.26
BSri Lanka25.9338.5237.5083.330.0041.78
BThailand35.1935.9356.2561.900.0041.52
BMozambique53.8950.5612.5047.620.0040.85
BIndonesia37.5940.5650.0054.760.0040.61
BBenin38.7020.5656.2566.670.0040.55
BRomania37.5936.8556.2550.000.0040.52
BIndia44.0745.0043.7545.240.0040.37
BSenegal49.6332.5925.0054.760.0040.20
CCCTrinidad and Tobago31.1144.6331.2566.670.0039.69
CCCTaiwan50.5623.6243.7542.860.0039.51
CCCEstonia30.1923.3331.2580.950.0039.40
CCCPakistan28.5237.0425.0076.190.0038.72
CCCEgypt35.7432.0450.0052.380.0038.59
CCCPanama11.8573.1537.5057.140.0038.13
CCCAzerbaijan28.3360.3718.7557.140.0038.01
CCCBurkina Faso47.4130.5637.5042.860.0037.86
CCCQatar52.4144.2625.0035.710.0037.83
CCCGreece53.8936.8518.7538.100.0037.42
CCCEl Salvador32.9628.8950.0057.140.0037.21
CCCRwanda30.9345.1931.2554.760.0036.78
CCCLesotho31.4825.7450.0059.520.0036.66
CCCTajikistan41.9934.4425.0054.760.0036.14
CCCCambodia25.1933.3337.5064.290.0035.67
CCCMalaysia36.4851.4831.2535.710.0035.15
CCCEthiopia21.3033.3362.5052.380.0035.01
CCCBolivia17.5936.6750.0057.140.0034.94
CCCGuyana25.7450.7425.0052.380.0034.81
CCCBarbados39.4429.2650.0038.100.0034.62
CCCTunisia36.1122.2218.7561.900.0034.52
CCCDjibouti25.0028.8937.5059.520.0034.46
CCCBelarus35.3726.1143.7552.380.0034.31
CCCCameroon30.3733.8937.5047.620.0034.29
CCCLebanon37.5932.0437.5042.860.0034.02
CCCHonduras24.6331.6737.5059.520.0033.94
CCCLuxembourg33.1531.6768.7526.190.0033.81
CCCMyanmar41.118.8950.0050.000.0033.76
CCCIvory Coast37.9630.1950.0030.950.0033.55
CCCKyrgyzstan27.9635.7437.5050.000.0033.50
CCCZambia33.8929.8143.7538.100.0033.06
CCCKazakhstan38.3344.0718.7535.710.0032.37
CCCChina35.5623.7031.2552.380.0032.07
CCCHaiti33.5237.2250.0028.570.0032.04
CCCGambia22.5935.1937.5045.240.0031.47
CCCNamibia28.1522.0431.2552.380.0031.33
CCCBahrain36.6736.6725.0035.710.0031.14
CCCMongolia27.7831.6731.2547.620.0031.08
CCCMauritius34.4427.4118.7545.240.0030.93
CCCLaos28.7026.4831.2550.000.0030.87
CCCJapan42.5919.4418.7545.240.0030.85
CCCLiberia27.2227.4131.2550.000.0030.59
CCCOman36.1129.2612.5047.620.0030.57
CCCSwaziland36.3022.0437.5042.860.0030.46
CCGabon30.0024.2625.0045.240.0029.72
CCTanzania27.0426.4825.0047.620.0028.84
CCChad26.8512.0431.2552.380.0028.77
CCVenezuela25.0040.9312.5040.480.0028.71
CCSaudi Arabia28.7034.4425.0038.100.0028.70
CCSouth Korea35.9331.8512.5033.330.0028.49
CCGhana22.0430.1925.0045.240.0028.43
CCRussia21.4828.3312.5061.900.0028.24
CCAlgeria28.5224.0725.0042.860.0027.61
CCMadagascar31.3014.4431.2542.860.0027.33
CCSingapore36.1122.410.0042.860.0027.12
CCUzbekistan24.2623.7018.7552.380.0026.65
CCBotswana24.8114.8137.5042.860.0026.22
CCTurkmenistan14.8135.7412.5054.760.0025.90
CCMauritania25.0032.4112.5040.480.0025.88
CCKuwait14.8133.3325.0045.240.0025.79
CCSuriname20.5619.4431.2540.480.0025.36
CCMalawi32.2221.1112.5038.100.0025.19
CCBurundi29.6314.8118.7538.100.0023.90
CCKenya21.8527.416.2542.860.0023.50
CCMorocco6.4824.6318.7552.380.0023.13
CCTimor-Leste25.9325.930.0040.480.0023.01
CCNiger12.4129.2625.0040.480.0022.95
CCRepublic of the Congo22.228.8937.5035.710.0022.33
CCCuba25.0017.7812.5038.100.0022.15
CCMali15.1912.0443.7533.330.0022.04
CCSudan24.0727.416.2533.330.0021.84
CCAngola20.3720.3731.2528.570.0021.52
CCZimbabwe15.3720.5612.5042.860.0020.85
CCGuinea-Bissau14.8132.0425.0021.430.0020.56
CBrunei7.4135.7412.5030.950.0019.56
CCape Verde15.1915.3725.0030.950.0019.48
CTogo26.484.6331.2519.050.0018.73
CSouth Sudan20.371.4818.7528.570.0015.69
CDemocratic Republic of the Congo7.7811.6731.2526.190.0015.01
CGuinea2.7812.9631.2528.570.0014.28
CPapua New Guinea6.4823.7025.0014.290.0013.31
CCentral African Republic14.8117.2212.507.140.0011.02
CHong Kong, SAR China5.935.190.0030.950.0010.75
DEquatorial Guinea0.0018.520.0023.810.008.92
DEritrea0.002.960.0026.190.005.18
DIran0.007.410.0016.670.004.75
DNorth Korea0.00-13.890.00-7.140.00-5.76
NO DATAAfghanistan
NO DATAIraq
NO DATALibya
NO DATASomalia
NO DATASyria
NO DATAYemen
Credit RatingCountrySurvivors SupportedCriminal JusticeCoordination & AccountabilityAddressing RiskGovernment & BusinessTotal Score
* No country could score above BBB if there was evidence of criminalisation and or deportation of victims.

Rajshahi, Bangladesh, January 2013. Dipa is 13 years old and has been engaged in prostitution for five months. She used to go to school, but stopped in class three after her family could no longer afford to send her. Her two sisters are also engaged in prostitution, but clients prefer to visit Dipa as she is the youngest of the three. She gets between four or five clients and earns about 1,200 Taka (US$15) a day.

Photo credit, Pep Bonet/ NOOR