A key finding from this Index is that there are an estimated

29.8 million

people in modern slavery globally *

According to the index, the prevalence of modern slavery is highest in…

  • Mauritania
  • Haiti
  • Pakistan
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Moldova
  • Benin
  • Cote d’Ivoire
  • The Gambia
  • Gabon
     

However, when considered in absolute terms, the countries with the highest numbers of enslaved people are…

  • India
  • China
  • Pakistan
  • Nigeria
  • Ethiopia
  • Russia
  • Thailand
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Myanmar
  • Bangladesh

Taken together, these ten countries account for

76%

of the total estimate of 29.8 million enslaved people.

* The Index provides an estimated range of the number of people in modern slavery, for each of the 162 countries covered by the Index. The lower range of the estimate is 28.3 million in modern slavery, and the upper range of the estimate is 31.3 million in modern slavery. The figure of 29.8 million is the mean of these estimates.

Overview

The Global Slavery Index provides a ranking of 162 countries, reflecting a combined measure of three factors: estimated prevalence of modern slavery by population, a measure of child marriage, and a measure of human trafficking in and out of a country. The measure is heavily weighted to reflect the first factor, prevalence. A number one ranking is the worst, 160 is the best.

Mauritania, a West African nation with deeply entrenched hereditary slavery, is ranked number 1 in the Index. This reflects the high prevalence of slavery in Mauritania – it is estimated that there are between 140,000 – 160,000 people enslaved in Mauritania, a country with a population of just 3.8 million. This ranking also reflects high levels of child marriage, and to a lesser extent, human trafficking.

Haiti, a Caribbean nation plagued by conflict, natural disaster and with deeply entrenched practices of child slavery (the restavek system), is second on the Index. This reflects high prevalence of modern slavery – an estimated 200,000 – 220,000 people are in modern slavery in Haiti, a country with a population of just 10.2 million. This ranking also reflects high levels of child marriage, and human trafficking from Haiti itself.

Pakistan, with its porous borders to Afghanistan, large populations of displaced persons and weak rule of law, is third on the Index. It is estimated that there are between 2,000,000 – 2,200,000 people in various forms of modern slavery in Pakistan, a country with a population of over 179 million.

Iceland, Ireland and the United Kingdom are tied with a ranking of 160 in the Index. This does not mean these countries are slavery free. On the contrary, it is estimated that there are between 4,200 – 4,600 people in modern slavery in the United Kingdom alone. The estimated size of the problem in Ireland and Iceland is much smaller, with Ireland estimated to have 300 – 340 people in modern slavery, and Iceland less than 100. An analysis of the UK response on this issue confirms much more can be done, as the Government response is fragmented and disjointed, and that there have been alarming systemic failures, including the loss of trafficked children from care.

Estimated number of population in modern slavery

The Global Slavery Index also provides insight into the estimated absolute numbers of people in modern slavery, in 162 countries. When the estimated number of enslaved people is considered in absolute terms as a single factor, the country ranking shifts considerably.

The countries with the highest numbers of enslaved people are India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Russia, Thailand, Democratic Republic of Congo, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Taken together, these countries account for 76% of the total estimate of 29.8 million in modern slavery.

The country with the largest estimated number of people in modern slavery is India, which is estimated to have between 13,300,000 and 14,700,000 people enslaved. The India country study suggests that while this involves the exploitation of some foreign nationals, by far the largest proportion of this problem is the exploitation of Indians citizens within India itself, particularly through debt bondage and bonded labour.

The country with the second highest absolute numbers of enslaved is China, with an estimated 2,800,000 to 3,100,000 in modern slavery. The China country study suggests that this includes the forced labour of men, women and children in many parts of the economy, including domestic servitude and forced begging, the sexual exploitation of women and children, and forced marriage.

The country with the third highest absolute number in modern slavery is Pakistan, with an estimated 2,000,000 to 2,200,000 people in modern slavery.

Country Studies

20 Country Studies, for the worst 10 and best 10 countries by prevalence, are contained in the report. These studies describe the problem, government responses, and action needed to address modern slavery in these countries. Supplementary Country Studies are in development and will continue to be made available here.

Countries with highest prevalence of modern slavery

Country Name Rank
Mauritania 1
Haiti 2
Pakistan 3
India 4
Nepal 5
Moldova 6
Benin 7
Côte d’Ivoire 8
The Gambia 9
Gabon 10

Countries with lowest prevalence of modern slavery

Country Name Rank
Denmark 150
Finland 150
Luxembourg 150
Norway 150
Sweden 150
Switzerland 150
New Zealand 159
United Kingdom 160
Ireland 160
Iceland 160

Supplementary Studies

Supplementary studies are in development and will continue to be made available here.

Country Name Rank
Thailand 24
Bangladesh 71
China 84
Brazil 94
Philippines 98
Australia 138
China 84
Democratic Republic of the Congo 23
Ethiopia 12
Russia 49
United States 134

Full Table and Rankings

The Global Slavery Index presents a ranking of 162 countries, based on a combination of their estimated prevalence of modern slavery, levels of child marriage, and levels of human trafficking into and out of the country.

Not all the countries in the world are represented in the Global Slavery Index. The 162 countries that are included, however, represent nearly all of the world’s 7.1 billion people. These countries collect a sufficient amount of standardised data to allow comparison across countries and regions. While equally as important, for the most part, those countries that have not been included are those having fewer than 100,000 citizens.

Rank Country Name Population Calculated Number of Enslaved Estimated Enslaved (Lower Range) Estimate Enslaved (Upper Range)
1Mauritania3,796,141151,353140,000160,000
2Haiti10,173,775209,165200,000220,000
3Pakistan179,160,1112,127,1322,000,0002,200,000
4India1,236,686,73213,956,01013,300,00014,700,000
5Nepal27,474,377258,806250,000270,000
6Moldova3,559,54133,32532,00035,000
7Benin10,050,70280,37176,00084,000
8Côte d'Ivoire19,839,750156,827150,000160,000
9Gambia1,791,22514,04613,00015,000
10Gabon1,632,57213,70713,00014,000
11Senegal13,726,021102,48198,000110,000
12Ethiopia91,728,849651,110620,000680,000
13Sierra Leone5,978,72744,64442,00047,000
14Togo6,642,92848,79446,00051,000
15Cape Verde494,4013,6883,5003,900
15Eritrea6,130,92244,45242,00047,000
17Guinea11,451,27382,19878,00086,000
18Ghana25,366,462181,038170,000190,000
19Republic of Congo4,337,05130,88929,00032,000
20Guinea-Bissau1,663,55812,18612,00013,000
20Cameroon21,699,631153,258150,000160,000
22Sudan37,195,349264,518250,000280,000
23Democratic Republic of the Congo65,705,093462,327440,000490,000
24Thailand66,785,001472,811450,000500,000
25Uganda36,345,860254,541240,000270,000
26Burkina Faso16,460,141114,745110,000120,000
27Somalia10,195,13473,15669,00077,000
28Niger17,157,042121,249120,000130,000
29Tanzania47,783,107329,503310,000350,000
30Laos6,645,82750,44048,00053,000
31Central African Republic4,525,20932,17431,00034,000
32Liberia4,190,43529,50428,00031,000
33Malawi15,906,483110,391100,000120,000
34Chad12,448,17586,32982,00091,000
35Mozambique25,203,395173,493160,000180,000
35Mali14,853,572102,24098,000110,000
35Equatorial Guinea736,2965,4535,2005,800
38Cambodia14,864,646106,507100,000110,000
39Botswana2,003,91014,29814,00015,000
40Zambia14,075,09996,17590,000100,000
41Burundi9,849,56971,14668,00075,000
42Myanmar52,797,319384,037360,000400,000
43Rwanda11,457,80180,28476,00084,000
44Lesotho2,051,54514,56014,00015,000
45Zimbabwe13,724,31793,74989,00098,000
46Namibia2,259,39315,72915,00017,000
47Uzbekistan29,776,850166,667160,000180,000
48Nigeria168,833,776701,032670,000740,000
49Russia143,533,000516,217490,000540,000
50Georgia4,511,80016,22715,00017,000
51Azerbaijan9,297,50733,43932,00035,000
51Albania3,162,08311,37211,00012,000
53Montenegro621,0812,2342,1002,400
54Czech Republic10,514,81037,81736,00040,000
54Hungary9,943,75535,76334,00038,000
56Bulgaria7,304,63227,73926,00029,000
57Armenia2,969,08110,67810,00011,000
58Afghanistan29,824,53686,08982,00090,000
59Bosnia and Herzegovina3,833,91613,78913,00015,000
59Serbia7,223,88725,98125,00027,000
61Croatia4,267,00015,34615,00016,000
61Poland38,542,737138,619130,000150,000
61Slovakia5,410,26719,45818,00020,000
64Vietnam88,775,500248,705240,000260,000
65Peru29,987,80082,27278,00086,000
66Djibouti859,6522,9292,8903,100
67Slovenia2,058,1527,4027,0007,800
68Suriname534,5411,5221,5001,600
69Ecuador15,492,26444,07242,00046,000
70Tajikistan8,008,99023,80223,00025,000
71Bangladesh154,695,368343,192330,000360,000
72Uruguay3,395,2539,9789,50010,000
73Colombia47,704,427129,923120,000140,000
74Paraguay6,687,36119,60219,00021,000
75Venezuela29,954,78279,62976,00084,000
76Bolivia10,496,28529,88628,00031,000
77Guyana795,3692,2642,2002,400
78Libya6,154,62317,68317,00019,000
79Dominican Republic10,276,62123,18322,00024,000
80Macedonia2,105,5756,2265,9006,500
81Kyrgyzstan5,582,10016,02715,00017,000
82Saudi Arabia28,287,85557,50455,00060,000
83Turkmenistan5,172,93114,71114,00015,000
84China1,350,695,0002,949,2432,800,0003,100,000
85Kazakhstan16,797,45946,66844,00049,000
86Ukraine45,593,300112,895110,000120,000
87Jordan6,318,00012,84312,00013,000
88United Arab Emirates9,205,65118,71318,00020,000
89Chile17,464,81437,84636,00040,000
90Turkey73,997,128120,201110,000130,000
91Algeria38,481,70570,86067,00074,000
92Yemen23,852,40941,30339,00043,000
93Morocco32,521,14350,59348,00053,000
94Brazil198,656,019209,622200,000220,000
95El Salvador6,297,39410,49010,00011,000
96Bahrain1,317,8272,6792,5002,800
96Qatar2,050,5144,1684,0004,400
98Philippines96,706,764149,973140,000160,000
99Oman3,314,0015,7395,5006,000
100Kuwait3,250,4966,6086,3006,900
101Guatemala15,082,83113,19413,00014,000
102Kenya43,178,14137,34936,00039,000
103Iran76,424,44365,31262,00069,000
104Iraq32,578,20928,25227,00030,000
105Syria22,399,25419,23418,00020,000
106Papua New Guinea7,167,0106,1315,8006,400
107Mexico120,847,477103,01098,000110,000
108Nicaragua5,991,7335,7985,5006,100
109Mongolia2,796,4844,7294,5005,000
110Honduras7,935,8467,5037,1007,900
111Israel7,907,9008,0967,7008,500
112Madagascar22,293,91419,18418,00020,000
113Egypt80,721,87469,37266,00073,000
114Indonesia246,864,191210,970200,000220,000
115South Africa51,189,30744,54542,00047,000
116Angola20,820,52516,76716,00018,000
117Belarus9,464,00011,49711,00012,000
118Sri Lanka20,328,00019,26718,00020,000
119Lebanon4,424,8884,0283,8004,200
120Timor-Leste1,210,2331,0209701,100
121Malaysia29,239,92725,26024,00027,000
122Argentina41,086,92735,36834,00037,000
122Tunisia10,777,5009,2718,8009,700
124Jamaica2,712,1002,3862,3002,500
125Romania21,326,90524,14123,00025,000
126Swaziland1,230,9851,3021,2001,400
127Brunei412,238417400440
128Lithuania2,985,5092,9092,8003,100
129Estonia1,339,3961,4961,4001,600
130Japan127,561,48980,03276,00084,000
131Latvia2,025,4732,0401,9002,140
132Italy60,917,9787,9197,5008,300
133Trinidad and Tobago1,337,439486460510
134United States313,914,04059,64457,00063,000
135Barbados283,22146<100<100
136Germany81,889,83910,64610,00011,000
137South Korea50,004,00010,4519,90011,000
138Australia22,683,6003,1673,0003,300
139France65,696,6898,5418,0009,000
139Netherlands16,767,7052,1802,1002,300
141Hong Kong, SAR China 7,154,6001,5431,5001,600
142Singapore5,312,4001,1051,1001,200
143Mauritius1,291,456535510560
144Canada34,880,4915,8635,6006,200
145Panama3,802,281548520580
146Costa Rica4,805,295679650710
147Portugal10,526,7031,3681,3001,400
147Spain46,217,9616,0085,7006,300
149Cuba11,270,9572,1162,0002,200
150Austria8,462,4461,1001,0001,200
150Belgium11,142,1571,4481,4001,500
150Greece11,280,1671,4661,4001,500
150Denmark5,590,478727700760
150Finland5,414,293704670740
150Luxembourg531,44169<100<100
150Norway5,018,869652620690
150Sweden9,516,6171,2371,2001,300
150Switzerland7,997,1521,0409901,100
159New Zealand4,433,100495470520
160United Kingdom63,227,5264,4264,2004,600
160Ireland4,588,798321300340
160Iceland320,13722<100<100