Overview

The 2014 Global Slavery Index presents a ranking of 167 countries based on the percent of a country’s population that is estimated to be in modern slavery. This year we have also ranked countries based on what actions their governments are taking to end modern slavery. We also analysed the contextual factors that make people vulnerable to modern slavery.

How big is the problem?

The table below shows the prevalence of slavery, based on the percentage of the population enslaved and the estimated number of people enslaved by country. For more information on how to interpret the table or sort the data presented, please click on the help button.

Global Rankings

CountryIndex rankSlaves (percentage)Slaves (est.)
Iceland1670.00723
Ireland1660.007300
Luxembourg1650.01371
New Zealand1640.013600
Norway1630.013700
Finland1620.013700
Denmark1610.013700
Switzerland1600.0131100
Austria1590.0131100
Sweden1580.0131200
Portugal1570.0131400
Greece1560.0131400
Belgium1550.0131500
Netherlands1540.0132200
Australia1530.0133000
Taiwan1520.0133000
Canada1510.0134600
Spain1500.0136100
United Kingdom1490.0138300
France1480.0138600
Germany1470.01310500
Italy1460.01911400
United States1450.01960100
Cuba1440.03624100
Brazil1430.0775155300
Israel1420.08066500
Singapore1410.09985400
Latvia1400.11322300
Romania1390.113222600
Belarus1380.121511500
Madagascar1370.132630400
Kenya1360.146464900
Barbados1350.1488400
Jamaica1340.15484200
Trinidad and Tobago1330.1692300
Dominican Rep.1320.175418200
Hong Kong1310.186513400
Poland1300.186571900
Argentina1290.186577300
Korea1280.186593700
Japan1270.1865237500
South Africa1260.2001106000
Venezuela1250.200260900
Uruguay1240.20957100
Panama1230.20958100
Costa Rica1220.209510200
Chile1210.209536900
Nicaragua1200.218213300
El Salvador1190.218213800
Paraguay1180.218214800
Honduras1170.218217700
Bolivia1160.218223300
Guatemala1150.218233800
Ecuador1140.218234300
Peru1130.218266300
Colombia1120.2182105400
Mexico1110.2182266900
Papua New Guinea1100.2316800
China1090.23883241400
Gabon1080.24764100
Kosovo1070.24764500
Ukraine1060.2476112600
Turkey1050.2476185500
Mauritius1040.25413300
Philippines1030.2655261200
Indonesia1020.2858714100
Saudi Arabia1010.291984200
Tunisia1000.306333300
Timor-Leste990.34044000
Turkmenistan980.359218800
Kyrgyzstan970.359220500
Lao PDR960.359224300
Tajikistan950.359229500
Azerbaijan940.359233800
Kazakhstan930.359261200
Sri Lanka920.359273600
Cameroon910.359279900
Uganda900.3592135000
Vietnam890.3592322200
Montenegro880.362200
Cyprus870.364100
Estonia860.364800
Slovenia850.367400
Macedonia840.367600
Albania830.3610000
Lithuania820.3610600
Armenia810.3610700
Bosnia and Herz.800.3613800
Croatia790.3615300
Georgia780.3616100
Slovakia770.3619500
Serbia760.3625800
Hungary750.3635600
Czech Rep.740.3637900
Bulgaria730.379727600
Guyana720.3873100
Ethiopia710.4141389700
Eq. Guinea700.43483300
Libya690.434827000
Eritrea680.434827500
Somalia670.434845600
Zimbabwe660.434861500
Angola650.434893400
Yemen640.4348106100
Dem. Rep. Korea630.4348108200
Afghanistan620.4348132800
Myanmar610.4348231600
Iran600.4348336700
Bangladesh590.4348680900
Lebanon580.4821400
Jordan570.4831000
Malaysia560.48142600
Morocco550.48158400
Algeria540.48188200
Egypt530.48393800
Nigeria520.4805834200
Guinea-Bissau510.50018500
Swaziland500.53596700
Cape Verde490.63683200
Brunei480.70933000
Bahrain470.70939400
Kuwait460.709323900
Oman450.709325800
Thailand440.7093475300
Djibouti430.71146200
Gambia420.711413200
Sierra Leone410.711443300
Burundi400.711472300
S. Sudan390.711480400
Guinea380.711483600
Rwanda370.711483800
Chad360.711491200
Mali350.7114108900
Côte d’Ivoire340.7114144500
Tanzania330.7114350400
Russia320.73151049700
Lesotho310.745615500
Liberia300.745632000
Togo290.745650800
Benin280.745677000
Senegal270.7456105400
Zambia260.7456108400
Malawi250.7456122000
Burkina Faso240.7456126300
Niger230.7456132900
Mozambique220.7456192600
Ghana210.7456193100
Nepal200.8227228700
Suriname190.90684900
Botswana180.906818300
Namibia170.906820900
Mongolia160.906825700
Moldova150.936233300
Cambodia141.0292155800
Iraq131.0351345900
United Arab Emirates121.057298800
Rep. of the Congo111.106149200
Central African Rep.101.1352200
Syria91.13258200
Sudan81.13429000
Dem. Rep. Congo71.13762900
Pakistan61.132058200
India51.140914285700
Qatar41.356329400
Haiti32.3041237700
Uzbekistan23.97291201400
Mauritania14155600

 

Around the world today, there are an estimated 35.8 million men, women and children trapped in modern slavery

It is important to note that we are not asserting that there has been an increase in modern slavery around the world over the last year. We believe that this increase is due to the improved accuracy and precision of our measures and that we are uncovering modern slavery where it was not seen before. Five countries are appearing in the Global Slavery Index for the first time: Taiwan, South Sudan, North Korea, Kosovo and Cyprus. A detailed description of the methodology underpinning this process can be found here.

A ranking of one in the Index indicates the most severely concentrated modern slavery situation; a ranking of 167 indicates the least severely concentrated modern slavery problem.

The ten countries with the highest estimated prevalence of modern slavery by population are: Mauritania, Uzbekistan, Haiti, Qatar, India, Pakistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Syria and the Central African Republic.

The countries with the largest estimated numbers of people in modern slavery are: India, China, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Russia, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Indonesia, Bangladesh, and Thailand. Taken together, these countries account for 71 percent of the estimated 35.8 million people in modern slavery.

As was the case in 2013, the West African nation of Mauritania ranks number one in the Index. In 2014, an estimated four percent of the population – approximately 155,600 people – are enslaved in Mauritania, a country with deeply entrenched hereditary slavery. In the past 12 months, the Mauritanian Government has taken positive steps to address slavery, adopting a plan of action recommended by the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Slavery. The government has agreed, amongst other things, to establishing a special tribunal to adjudicate cases of slavery. While this progress is important, it may be several years before these changes have any impact on the size of the problem.

The Republic of Uzbekistan, a Central Asian nation whose economy relies heavily on cotton production and export, is second in the Index. The rise in Uzbekistan’s ranking is a direct reflection of government-imposed forced labour. While it is very difficult to obtain accurate estimates of modern slavery in Uzbekistan, the role of the government in forcing citizens to pick cotton for two months every year has been well-documented by numerous organisations.1 The most conservative of available estimates indicates that almost four percent – approximately 1,201,400 people – of the Uzbek population is subjected to modern slavery during the annual cotton harvest.

Several other countries rose in the rankings in 2014. Those that entered the top ten include: Qatar, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Syria and the Central African Republic.

Qatar hosts significant numbers of foreign workers, and has risen in the ranking due to improved survey data giving better insight to the high number of enslaved migrant workers in the nation. It is ranked fourth with an estimated 1.4 percent of the population in modern slavery. We consider this to be a conservative estimate.

The ranking of Pakistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Sudan, Syria and the Central African Republic in the top ten reflects the impact of war and conflict on modern slavery. Conflict brings an almost immediate end to the rule of law, as well as bringing most infrastructure, normal services and governmental processes to a halt. In conflict, exploitation becomes an immediate threat to an increased proportion of the population. Over one percent of the population of Pakistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Syria and Central African Republic is estimated to be in modern slavery. In absolute terms, this is approximately 2,058,200 people from Pakistan, 762,900 people from DRC, 429,000 people from Sudan, 258,200 people from Syria, and 52,200 people from the Central African Republic.

Ireland and Iceland sit at 166 and 167 in the 2014 Index with the lowest prevalence of modern slavery. While the estimated proportion of the population in modern slavery in each country is small (0.0007, or seven in every 10,000 persons in the population), no country in the Global Slavery Index is free of modern slavery. Ireland and Iceland are estimated to have approximately 300 and up to 100 people in modern slavery, respectively.

Government Response

In the table below, each country was given a letter rating based the strength of government responses to modern slavery. The highest possible rating is an AAA, and the lowest a D. For more information on how to interpret the table or sort the data presented, please click on the help button.

Rank of countries by government response

CountryResponse ratingSurvivors are supportedCriminal justiceCoordination and accountabilityAttitudes, social systems and institutionsBusiness and government
SwedenA77.888.166.787.50
NetherlandsAA88.995.210087.50
PeruB5054.858.3500
LithuaniaB5061.958.3500
RomaniaB5066.750750
NigeriaB61.173.858.343.80
MexicoB55.673.850500
CyprusB61.176.258.337.50
NepalB44.473.858.362.50
GuatemalaB44.466.75056.30
ParaguayB38.978.65062.50
ChileB44.466.75056.30
FinlandB61.159.566.756.30
IcelandB44.454.866.7500
BulgariaB5059.558.3500
JamaicaB55.673.866.743.80
IsraelB44.466.72562.50
ThailandB5061.958.3500
NicaraguaB44.464.358.343.80
IndonesiaB5054.85062.50
GreeceB55.654.850500
Czech Rep.B44.473.858.362.50
United Arab EmiratesB77.873.841.743.80
AzerbaijanB66.759.55037.50
PolandBB61.173.875500
ArgentinaBB77.892.92556.30
BrazilBB61.152.47587.550
ItalyBB66.771.441.7500
MontenegroBB83.38166.743.80
MacedoniaBB72.259.583.3500
SerbiaBB66.7815056.30
SlovakiaBB66.766.766.762.50
SloveniaBB61.173.858.343.80
PhilippinesBB61.171.458.356.30
New ZealandBB5066.741.787.50
HungaryBB55.673.866.768.80
TaiwanBB61.161.95062.50
GermanyBB61.166.758.356.30
FranceBB50815068.80
CanadaBB44.48158.381.30
DenmarkBB66.766.758.362.50
LatviaBB61.18158.3500
PortugalBB66.766.775500
SpainBBB72.273.858.368.80
SwitzerlandBBB72.2817568.80
United StatesBBB94.495.27593.875
GeorgiaBBB66.783.37562.50
BelgiumBBB55.688.158.3750
CroatiaBBB66.773.875750
AustraliaBBB72.288.166.781.350
AustriaBBB72.28158.368.80
NorwayBBB66.7817568.80
IrelandBBB66.78175750
United KingdomBBB77.88166.781.30
LebanonC38.93141.731.30
SwazilandC22.21933.318.80
Papua New GuineaC27.826.28.318.80
KuwaitC16.738.116.731.30
TunisiaC22.238.116.737.50
Hong KongC27.814.316.7250
AngolaC16.726.22531.30
DjiboutiC11.13133.3250
BruneiC22.235.716.737.50
AlgeriaC16.752.433.36.30
SomaliaC27.8192518.80
KyrgyzstanC16.73133.331.30
ZimbabweC22.23116.731.30
Guinea-BissauC16.726.241.7250
OmanC33.340.52518.80
YemenC11.126.233.337.50
HaitiC22.238.12518.80
ChadC22.226.22518.80
MoroccoC16.71925250
MaliC16.716.733.3250
TanzaniaC22.233.325250
GuineaC16.738.12531.30
CubaC22.245.216.718.80
SurinameC11.140.533.3250
S. SudanC16.73116.718.80
RussiaC33.352.42512.50
NigerC11.152.425250
SudanC16.726.225250
Dem. Rep. CongoC22.23133.312.50
Saudi ArabiaC33.338.141.718.80
Lao PDRCC27.854.841.7250
GambiaCC27.854.841.737.50
MadagascarCC16.738.133.343.80
LiberiaCC33.366.741.718.80
BurundiCC27.840.525250
Burkina FasoCC44.426.216.7250
MozambiqueCC22.247.641.737.50
Timor-LesteCC33.340.516.743.80
EthiopiaCC22.259.52537.50
BotswanaCC27.833.333.343.80
GuyanaCC44.440.52537.50
Cape VerdeCC22.240.516.737.50
HondurasCC22.240.55043.80
KazakhstanCC5045.233.318.80
NamibiaCC38.952.42531.30
LesothoCC38.933.316.731.30
MauritaniaCC27.838.133.337.50
BahrainCC38.945.233.331.30
QatarCC5052.441.737.50
GabonCC44.440.541.7250
SingaporeCC33.31941.731.30
VenezuelaCC22.226.22537.50
KenyaCC33.340.52543.80
AfghanistanCC38.940.52531.30
Côte d’IvoireCC16.752.458.331.30
El SalvadorCC27.840.541.737.50
PakistanCC33.333.333.331.30
RwandaCC33.352.433.318.80
TajikistanCC22.233.350500
BoliviaCC22.271.433.343.80
TogoCC33.345.233.331.30
EgyptCC38.952.441.743.80
KosovoCCC38.961.95018.80
GhanaCCC33.359.533.343.80
BelarusCCC61.145.241.737.50
LuxembourgCCC5073.833.331.30
ColombiaCCC33.340.533.3500
ZambiaCCC55.661.958.337.50
BarbadosCCC33.352.441.7500
EcuadorCCC38.952.441.737.50
ArmeniaCCC38.961.916.743.80
Costa RicaCCC44.454.841.7500
Trinidad and TobagoCCC27.859.533.3500
Sierra LeoneCCC38.96933.337.50
MauritiusCCC44.464.341.731.30
JordanCCC5059.550500
PanamaCCC16.761.958.343.80
VietnamCCC38.945.258.343.80
South AfricaCCC44.457.133.343.80
UruguayCCC44.435.741.7500
SenegalCCC38.945.241.756.30
BangladeshCCC38.961.950500
MalawiCCC5047.616.743.80
UgandaCCC38.947.65043.80
ChinaCCC33.340.541.743.80
MoldovaCCC44.461.941.743.80
Dominican Rep.CCC33.366.741.737.50
MyanmarCCC38.933.366.731.30
UkraineCCC61.159.550250
AlbaniaCCC61.152.441.737.50
TurkeyCCC38.952.441.731.30
MongoliaCCC5059.516.7500
IndiaCCC5047.633.362.50
KoreaCCC33.342.92562.50
CambodiaCCC44.466.741.737.50
Sri LankaCCC38.933.358.362.50
BeninCCC27.840.55043.80
Bosnia and Herz.CCC5059.541.731.30
JapanCCC44.435.733.343.80
MalaysiaCCC5040.533.331.30
CameroonCCC55.652.42537.50
EstoniaCCC55.645.25043.80
IranD011.98.300
UzbekistanD16.733.32512.50
Dem. Rep. KoreaD008.300
Eq. GuineaD5.6198.318.80
IraqD22.226.216.718.80
EritreaD011.916.712.50
TurkmenistanD5.645.216.718.80
SyriaD011.916.76.30
LibyaD5.623.816.712.50
Central African Rep.D11.123.88.312.50
Rep. of the CongoD11.11925250

While no country has a fully comprehensive response to modern slavery, most countries within the Index are taking some action to respond to the problem.
All countries, with the exception of North Korea, have domestic legislation which criminalises some form of modern slavery. This ranges from articles in their penal codes criminalising forced labour or child commercial sexual exploitation, through to fully fledged counter trafficking legislation. Australia and the United Kingdom currently criminalise all forms of modern slavery, including forced marriage. While in most countries there is room for improvement, some laws do exist to hold perpetrators to account in almost every country, which suggests much more could be done within existing frameworks.

Many countries have developed a national action plan to respond to forms of modern slavery (101 of 167 countries), and some have a national coordination body (140 of 167 countries). Nearly all countries participate in a relevant regional response (165 of 167 countries).

Identifying victims is a critical first step to ensuring that they are removed from harm and provided with support. Most governments provide some training to front line law enforcement on how to identify victims (150 of 167). In 2014, the Index does not take into account the scale or quality of the training. Fewer governments, however, are providing training for other potential ‘first responders’, that is those in the health and social services, teachers, or those who work in the tourism industry, who may also come into contact with victims. Ireland, Argentina, and Montenegro are particularly strong in running regular and systematic training for ‘first responders’.

Victim assistance for men, women and children is a weakness of all government responses. No country scored 100 percent on these activities while the majority of countries scored 50 percent or lower. Most countries either only provide short term assistance, neglecting long-term reintegration, or provide support solely for female or child victims.

Many countries are taking steps to respond to attitudes or institutions that enable modern slavery to exist (165 of 167). Of these governments, approximately 93 percent run public information campaigns to raise awareness of modern slavery, while only eight percent focus on behaviour change. Many countries also have in place safety nets, such as child protection systems, and protections for Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), asylum seekers and stateless people (120 of 167 countries). While these protections may exist in paper, the challenge is how to assess if such protections operate in reality.

Globally, only three governments are making some efforts to prevent the use of forced or slave labour in their supply chains, and in the supply chains of businesses operating in their country. These include the United States, Brazil and Australia. These countries have either made a public commitment to address modern slavery within their own supply chains, such as Australia, or have taken more active steps to ensure supply chain transparency, such the United States’ Executive Order, or Brazil’s Register of Companies (the Dirty List).

The Netherlands has the strongest response to modern slavery of the 167 countries examined, scoring highly across victim assistance programmes, criminal justice responses, and responding to institutional risk. The Netherlands includes the private sector in its National Action Plan and conducts independent evaluations.

Other governments in the top ten responses are, Sweden, the United States, Australia, Switzerland, Ireland, Norway, the United Kingdom, Georgia and Austria. Common characteristics of each of these countries are a strong political will to respond to the issue and a strong rule of law. These countries are also starting to take ownership of the link between business and modern slavery. In Brazil, companies that profit from slave labour are named and shamed. In the US, the government has taken steps to ensure its procurement practices are not contributing to modern slavery. In Australia, public procurement rules identify modern slavery as an important issue when considering the ethical behaviour of suppliers, but it is not clear if this has translated to action yet.

While these efforts are commendable, most countries within the top ten responses have strong economies, and also benefit from low prevalence and low risk across all vulnerability dimensions (indicating state stability, respect for human rights and rule of law). Despite these strong economies, none of these countries have a perfect response to modern slavery. In the US, victim support services are currently underfunded, and skewed towards supporting victims of sexual exploitation, but not forced labour despite recent studies confirming the significance of this problem. Victim support services in the Netherlands also focus predominately on those who experience commercial sexual exploitation.

The actions of Georgia deserve credit – despite having a weaker economy than many countries covered by the Index and ranking 78th in the Global Slavery Index for prevalence, the government has taken some strong steps to eradicate modern slavery. More, however, could be done to provide training to those who would ordinarily identify victims, and to address vulnerability factors.

In several of the countries in the top ten of responses, there is evidence of discriminatory migration policies, deportation of potential victims without sufficient screening, or criminalisation of victims for actions whilst under the control of criminals. The United Kingdom, for example, has been accused of deporting, or detaining in immigration detention centres, foreign migrants who are potential victims of modern slavery. There are inconsistencies in Australia’s screening processes of vulnerable migrant populations, such as asylum seekers, for indicators of trafficking. There have also been reports of children being treated as offenders in the United States for conduct committed as a direct result of being sold to others for sexual exploitation. Unaccompanied minors can also be subject to fast track screening and deportation at border points making it very unlikely for modern slavery to be detected.

Countries at the lower end of the ranking include North Korea, Iran, Syria, Eritrea, the Central African Republic, Libya, Equatorial Guinea, Uzbekistan, the Republic of the Congo and Iraq. These countries are characterised by weak economies, high levels of instability caused by recent conflict, such as Libya and Syria, or government complicity in modern slavery. Uzbek cotton, produced with forced labour, is exported to Bangladesh, South Korea and China. In North Korea, prisoners in the gulag system – or forced labour camps – produce hardwoods for export to Japan. The forced labour systems in both Uzbekistan and North Korea are major contributors to their national economies.

Hong Kong, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia each have either a strong or middle range economy, but have a particularly poor response to modern slavery. The kafala system, which ties an employee to an employer, has facilitated significant abuses of domestic and construction workers in the Middle East. Hong Kong is part of a small group of countries in South East Asia, such as Japan, Malaysia and Singapore, who, despite their relative wealth, have done little to respond to the problem within their borders.

Overall, many countries appear to have responses in place on paper, yet modern slavery still persists. This indicates that these responses are either not fit for purpose, or are not being fully implemented, or a combination of the two. Countries in South East Asia, such as Thailand and Indonesia, appear to have strong responses on paper, but these are often poorly implemented, or are hampered by high levels of corruption.

Vulnerability

The vulnerability table below shows factors that put a country’s residents at risk of modern slavery. The higher the score, the more vulnerable a country’s population is to slavery. For more information on how to interpret the table or sort the data presented, please click on the help button.

Global data table – vulnerability

CountryMean vulnerabilitySlavery policyHuman rightsDevelopmentState stabilityDiscrimination
Norway11.311.61625.67.82.5
Netherlands11.411.69.225.113.58.4
Australia11.511.62.924.813.515.1
New Zealand12.715.18.626.66.66.8
Sweden13.58.115.726.510.110.9
Austria14.94.517.323.914.414.4
United Kingdom15.18.110.317.118.417.6
Canada15.58.116.825.411.219.7
Finland164.522.226.28.914.4
Belgium164.518.126.814.915.9
Luxembourg1732.82.410.99.921.6
Germany17.611.624.725.114.412.2
Denmark18.443.416.825.23.56.2
United States19.98.117.922.226.125.4
Iceland20541922.412.13
Slovenia20.74.515.129.616.134.8
Ireland20.718.718.127.116.719.5
Portugal21.418.71328.21729.7
Switzerland2232.823.321.110.625.5
Taiwan22.711.628.417.127.728.9
Spain22.715.127.922.822.617.6
France22.825.825.8282123.9
Czech Rep.248.127.928.717.737.6
Hong Kong2564.63.521.110.925.2
Poland25.5121.727.122.248.2
Slovakia28.811.628.531.239.333.4
Argentina29.525.830.730.346.521.3
Italy29.632.821.92438.131.3
Cyprus29.825.827.72920.746
Japan29.961.117.623.411.440
Korea30.322.239.230.830.536
Estonia30.650.513.228.124.643.5
Uruguay31.457.614.631.333.626.8
Chile31.536.42031.723.645.7
Croatia33.743.433.830.830.337
Costa Rica34.25422.534.639.124.5
Brazil34.622.22833.350.242.5
Singapore35.122.251.928.216.859.4
Lithuania35.24736.424.527.144.3
Hungary35.35430.833.822.132.4
Bulgaria35.522.242.430.947.934.1
Serbia3725.845.434.143.240.2
Latvia37.743.434.83038.845.1
Israel37.829.343.928.73258.4
Romania38.125.850.134.842.840.6
Barbados38.557.617.542.323.142.3
Mauritius3968.230.838.921.442.3
Macedonia39.725.841.733.754.946
Montenegro40.836.438.830.349.549
Kosovo40.922.24536.348.456.3
Cape Verde41.350.59.343.633.661.4
Greece41.436.449.830.243.350.9
Jamaica41.736.423.954.954.549.7
Moldova41.84.55840.152.653.6
Ecuador42.139.949.632.257.734.7
Panama42.168.22835.646.842.6
Armenia42.14.563.735.751.654.8
Trinidad and Tobago42.864.627.736.241.536.8
El Salvador42.932.832.644.961.453.5
South Africa43.343.424.838.246.955.6
Mongolia4464.628.535.742.544.9
Mexico45.239.940.93960.242.7
Suriname45.2472353.335.763.4
Peru45.443.446.235.648.953.1
Bosnia and Herz.45.729.357.234.946.453.8
Colombia45.843.443.338.757.949.2
Nicaragua45.98.159.660.959.741.2
Paraguay46.343.436.543.361.553.9
Albania46.34743.6365755.3
United Arab Emirates46.839.98534.434.140.6
Philippines47.136.441.445.652.559.4
Ukraine4857.64638.961.140
Kazakhstan49.136.475.83457.838
Bolivia49.55442.353.460.548.3
Gabon50.550.545.649.846.463.8
Qatar50.850.582.328.126.170.1
Turkey50.950.563.739.644.262.9
Georgia51.157.671.93745.946.8
Namibia51.278.82349.635.772.5
Tajikistan51.439.97851.157.138.5
Brunei51.443.486.736.630.367
Thailand51.557.6604044.658.6
Dominican Rep.51.74754.341.260.559.3
Guatemala51.732.844.644.166.858.8
Botswana51.885.935.550.229.653.6
Tunisia5264.64540.848.353.9
Venezuela52.743.476.438.373.735
Nepal53.261.161.764.950.730.1
Azerbaijan53.743.485.236.759.543.3
Indonesia53.7477051.949.656
Timor-Leste54.271.72360.558.257
Kyrgyzstan54.268.264.345.35743.1
Vietnam54.34791.845.149.441.7
Ghana54.471.725.967.946.263.5
Cuba55.568.297.351.644.81
Mozambique55.55444.977.855.541
Sri Lanka55.764.669.747.158.934.2
Senegal55.743.438.176.454.355.7
Burkina Faso55.85438.883.758.942.8
Oman56.168.277.23840.958.8
Russia56.25489.929.76747.5
Uzbekistan56.55491.83962.838.6
Uganda56.739.972.472.451.254.4
India56.785.958.95456.538.3
Benin56.761.136.780.35150.1
Belarus56.864.697.336.454.534.7
Guyana57.371.739.968.449.867.5
Bangladesh57.375.36267.358.630
Lesotho57.782.33470.44652.1
Malaysia58.178.877.435.630.471.5
Bahrain58.278.886.927.437.256.5
Cameroon58.432.871.674.659.757
Malawi58.664.643.589.141.657.9
Zambia58.961.151.171.448.567.7
China5957.691.942.246.253.3
Liberia59.778.835.981.653.752
Morocco6085.968.943.946.650.9
Togo60.168.250.576.960.448.1
Niger60.261.147.886.955.250.2
Egypt60.650.582.142.949.977.2
Jordan60.761.185.948.637.562.4
Honduras61.15453.85875.664.4
Rep. of the Congo61.764.650.569.657.369.4
Kuwait61.889.469.934.336.878.2
Ethiopia62.336.492.682.752.753.8
Gambia62.557.653.382.560.658.8
Lebanon62.568.264.838.262.578.4
Lao PDR62.661.197.361.549.850
Cambodia62.975.358.854.865.363.6
Sierra Leone6368.2428650.768.2
Rwanda63.575.371.270.245.954.1
Nigeria63.650.572.758.568.471
Kenya63.678.868.554.467.356
Mali6492.941.781.464.545.7
Tanzania64.25462.981.654.967.5
Algeria64.889.492.149.248.148.9
Turkmenistan64.864.61004564.746.3
Swaziland6564.669.555.255.873.2
Côte d’Ivoire6557.665.678.567.655.7
Papua New Guinea6589.428.565.948.289.3
Angola65.371.775.363.461.454.4
Djibouti65.768.275.372.556.152.7
Saudi Arabia65.982.391.83649.572.2
Burundi66.378.855.281.966.441.7
S. Sudan66.782.353.378.572.557.3
Madagascar67.464.664.879.85958
Pakistan69.585.979.260.468.960
Eq. Guinea69.692.983.553.762.858.8
Guinea7071.764.382.469.761.5
Guinea-Bissau70.392.950.582.67260
Iran71.496.592.84158.168.4
Iraq71.771.791.861.377.259
Haiti71.968.26781.364.375
Mauritania72.292.975.376.862.767.6
Myanmar72.368.291.871.861.864.5
Zimbabwe73.585.991.863.970.953.5
Chad73.775.360.786.474.164.9
Afghanistan75.178.869.891.979.354.4
Dem. Rep. Korea75.285.910059.875.158.8
Libya75.689.488.2506383.5
Syria76.910010055.374.754.1
Central African Rep.78.992.983.582.37766.2
Dem. Rep. Congo79.378.87883.980.764.3
Yemen80.689.494.564.669.784.4
Sudan82.678.810079.779.859.9
Eritrea83.892.910086.355.983.5
Somalia94.985.910092.885.5100

In 2014, the Global Slavery Index examines the relative vulnerability of the population in individual countries to modern slavery, based on an analysis of data across five dimensions:

  1. National policies to combat modern slavery.
  2. The availability of human rights protections in a country.
  3.  The level of economic and social development in a country.
  4. The level of state stability in a country.
  5. The extent of women’s rights and levels of discrimination in a country.

In 2014, the ten countries where vulnerability is highest were: Somalia, Eritrea, Sudan, Yemen, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic, Syria, Libya, North Korea, and Afghanistan. In an effort to better understand the relative significance of each of the dimensions noted above, we undertook statistical testing (bivariate analysis) to examine the correlations between these dimensions, and prevalence of modern slavery. Correlation results confirm that the relationship between each of these dimensions and prevalence is statistically significant.
The strongest relationships (in order of strongest to weakest) are seen between:

  • State Stability and Prevalence (r = 0.55, p<.01)
  • Human Rights and Prevalence (r = 0.53, p<.01)
  • Development and Prevalence (r = 0.41, p<.01)
  • Discrimination and Prevalence (r =0.40, p<.01)
  • State Policy on Modern Slavery and Prevalence (r = 0.38, p<.01)

Each of these results is statistically significant indicating the relationship is not the result of chance (the closer r is to 1, the stronger the relationship between the two variables). The stability or instability of a country is a significant factor; protective policies will have little impact when a country’s rule of law has broken down because of civil war, or ethnic or religious conflict. In the Global Slavery Index the State Stability measure is an aggregate of factors that examine a country’s level of corruption, governance, independence of its judiciary, relative level of peace, political stability, level of violent crime, and availability of small arms and light weapons. Statistical testing confirms the relevance of modern slavery to conflict situations as we have seen this year in Syria and the horrors perpetrated by the terrorist group Islamic State.

High levels of prejudice and discrimination in a society can create a context that marks some people as less important and less deserving of rights and protection, which in turn makes the crime of modern slavery easier to commit against them. In the Global Slavery Index seven variables are used to measure the extent and types of discrimination. These factors include: discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, disability, immigration status, ethnicity, women’s political and economic rights, and the level of income inequality (Gini coefficient) in a given country. Statistical testing confirms the relationship between discrimination and prevalence of modern slavery.

Footnotes

  1. “Follow-up to the conclusions of the Committee on the Application of Standards International Labour Conference, 102nd Session, June 2013: Uzbekistan (Ratification: 2008)”, (International Labour Organization, 2014), accessed 22/09/14: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3149080; see also “Forced
    Labor in Uzbekistan: Report on the 2013 Cotton Harvest”, (Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights, 2014), accessed 22/09/14: http://uzbekgermanforum.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Forced-Labor-in-Uzbekistan-Report-2013.pdf

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Country briefs

View detailed country briefs that describe the nature of problem, government responses, and action needed to address modern slavery in 32 countries.

Country results

View the prevalence, vulnerability and government response data of each country.

Regional profiles

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Survivors are identified, supported to exit and remain out of modern slavery
Criminal justice mechanisms address modern slavery
Coordination and accountability mechanisms for the central government are in place
Attitudes, social systems and institutions that enable modern slavery are addressed
Businesses and governments through their public procurement stop sourcing goods and services that use modern slavery

Government response rating: AAA

Numerical range: 59 to 64

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of AAA are as follows:
The government has an implemented an effective and comprehensive response to all forms of modern slavery, with effective emergency and long-term reintegration victim support services, a strong criminal justice framework, high levels of coordination and collaboration, measures to address all forms of vulnerability, and strong government procurement policies and legislation to ensure that slavery is not present in business supply chains. There is no evidence of criminalisation or deportation of victims.

Government response rating: AA

Numerical range: 53 to 58

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of AA are as follows:
The government has implemented a comprehensive response to most forms of modern slavery, with strong victim support services, a robust criminal justice framework, demonstrated coordination and collaboration, measures to address vulnerability, and government procurement guidelines and/or supply chain policies or legislation to ensure that slavery is not present in business supply chains.

Government response rating: A

Numerical range: 47 to 52

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of A are as follows:
The government has implemented key components of a holistic response to some forms of modern slavery, with strong victim support services, a strong criminal justice framework, demonstrated coordination and collaboration, measures to address vulnerability, and may have taken action to ensure that government procurement policies do not encourage slavery.

Government response rating: BBB

Numerical range: 41 to 46

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of BBB are as follows:
The government has implemented key components of a holistic response to modern slavery, with victim support services, a strong criminal justice response, evidence of coordination and collaboration, and protections in place for vulnerable populations. Governments may be beginning to address slavery in supply chains of government procurement, or of businesses operating within their territory. There may be evidence that some government policies and practices may criminalise and/or cause victims to be deported.

Government response rating: BB

Numerical range: 35 to 40

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of BB are as follows:
The government has introduced a response to modern slavery, which includes short term victim support services, a criminal justice framework that criminalises some forms of modern slavery, a body to coordinate the response, and protections for those vulnerable to modern slavery.There may be evidence that some government policies and practices may criminalise and/or cause victims to be deported, and/or facilitate slavery.

Government response rating: B

Numerical range: 29 to 34

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of B are as follows:
The government has introduced a response to modern slavery, with limited victim support services, a criminal justice framework that criminalises some forms of modern slavery, (or has recently amended inadequate legislation and policies), a body or mechanisms that coordinate the response, and has policies that provide some protection for those vulnerable to modern slavery. There is evidence that some government policies and practices may criminalise and/or deport victims, and/or facilitate slavery. Services may be provided by International Organisations (IOs)/ NGOs with international funding, sometimes with government monetary or in-kind support.

Government response rating: CCC

Numerical range: 23 to 28

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of CCC are as follows:
The government has a response to modern slavery, with limited victim support services, a criminal justice framework that criminalises some forms of modern slavery, has a national action plan and/or national coordination body, and has policies that provide some protections for those vulnerable to modern slavery. There is evidence that some government policies and practices may criminalise and/or deport victims, and/ or facilitate slavery. Services may be largely provided by IOs/NGOs with international funding, with limited government funding or in-kind support.

Government response rating: CC

Numerical range: 17 to 22

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of CC are as follows:
The government has a limited response to modern slavery, with largely basic victim support services, a limited criminal justice framework, limited coordination or collaboration mechanism, and few protections for those vulnerable to modern slavery.There may be evidence that some government policies and practices facilitate slavery. Services are largely provided by IOs/NGOs with limited government funding or in-kind support.

Government response rating: C

Numerical range: 11 to 16

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of C are as follows:
The government response to modern slavery is inadequate, with limited and/or few victim support services, a weak criminal justice framework, weak coordination or collaboration, while little is being done to address vulnerability.There are government practices and policies that facilitate slavery. Services, where available, are largely provided by IOs/NGOs with little government funding or in-kind support.

Government response rating: D

Numerical range: <0 to 10

The general characteristics of a country that has received a rating of D are as follows:
The government has a wholly inadequate response to modern slavery, and/ or there is evidence of government sanctioned modern slavery. However, countries in this category may be experiencing high levels of poverty and internal conflict that may prevent, or hinder a response to modern slavery.