Region Analysis

Sub-Saharan Africa

  • 6,245,800 Estimate Number Enslaved
  • 13.6% Regional Proportion of Global Number
  • 47.3/100 Average Vulnerability Score
  • 28.2/100 Average Government Response Rating

Prevalence

How many people are in modern slavery in Sub-Saharan Africa?

In 2016, the estimates of modern slavery in Sub-Saharan Africa accounted for approximately 13.6 percent of the world's total enslaved population. Within the region, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Mauritania have the highest rates of modern slavery. As evident from surveys conducted in Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa and Ethiopia by Walk Free Foundation, slavery in Sub-Saharan Africa takes the form of forced labour and forced marriage. In Ghana, survey results suggest that there are an estimated 103,300 people enslaved in that country, of which 85 percent are in forced labour, and 15 percent are in formed marriage. For forced labour, the main industries of concern are farming and fishing, retail sales and then manual labour and factory work. In Nigeria, survey results suggest that forced labour is predominantly within the domestic sector, although it was impossible to survey in three regions due to high conflict. In South Africa, the industries most reported in the survey include the commercial sex industry, manual labour industries such as construction, manufacturing and factory work, and drug trafficking.


Regional Findings of Prevalence

6,245,800

Estimate number enslaved

Regional Proportion of Global Number

13.6%


There is evidence that the governments of Eritrea and Swaziland actively sanctioned the use of forced labour. In Swaziland, a practice of 'royal tribute labour' exists whereby royal chiefs are alleged to enforce forced labour projects such as cattle herding.[1] Indeed, the government attempted to backtrack on its intentions when its use of unpaid child labour was reported by international media.[2] Eritrea, on the other hand, operates a national service programme which amounted to forced labour.[3] Officially, this is only intended to last for one year, but there are reports detailing that, in some cases, service is effectively indefinite.[4] These conditions are so prevalent that the UNHCR has recommended that Eritrean draught evaders be considered refugees.[5] While the United Kingdom previously recommended that all Eritrean draught evaders who fled illegally should be granted asylum,[6] this policy was changed in 2015 to reflect greater leniency shown towards returnees.[7]

The prevalence of commercial sexual exploitation is witnessed across the region; however, it is particularly prevalent where internal violence and political instability coexist. This is the case in South Sudan, where safe zones for refugees have become 'rape camps'[8] where soldiers are reported to be remunerated for fighting by raping women and girls.[9] News media outlets also suggest that government forces in South Sudan kidnap women and girls[10] —from April to September 2015, charities working on the ground estimated 1,300 women and girls were raped while 1,600 were abducted in three counties.[11] Women and children from Ethiopia and Eritrea are also subject to commercial sexual exploitation abroad, with cases reported in the Middle East.[12]

The exploitation of children is prevalent in the region. In Ghana, it is estimated that 21,000 child slaves currently work in the Ghanaian fishing industry along Lake Volta and its surrounds.[13] The UNODC found that in 2014, human trafficking in the Sub- Sahara typically targeted women and children;[14] however, men were also at risk albeit to a lesser extent.[15] This study also found that Sub-Saharan Africa has the largest share of child trafficking in the world.[16] In Togo, for instance, poverty[17] and a lack of education[18] pushed parents to entrust their children to trafficking intermediaries;[19] typically a friend or relative of the victim.[20] Once in their care, the children were transferred to sites of exploitation.[21] For girls, this typically involved forced domestic work and sexual exploitation. For boys, this typically involved forced labour in the agriculture industry.[22] In Burundi, similar factors enabled the sex trafficking of young girls.[23] In Guinea-Bissau and the region surrounding Senegal, families send their children to become talibés [24] —students of a religious teacher, known as a marabout.[25] There is evidence that traffickers exploit this tradition as a means of trafficking children and subjecting them to forced begging.[26] Recent findings suggesting that Senegal has over 30,000 exploited talibés in the Dakar region alone.[27]

While there have been positive developments on reducing the use of children in armed conflict within Sub-Saharan Africa, the issue of child soldiers remains a problem across the region. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), children continue to be recruited by armed groups. In 2015, the United Nations documented evidence that 241 child soldiers were recruited,[28] 80 were killed[29] and 92 were maimed in DRC.[30] The recruitment of children into armed conflict reflects wider social and economic issues, as children often enlisted voluntarily for protection and financial stability.[31]

In the Central African Republic, it is estimated that 6,000–10,000 children remain involved with military forces.[32] Despite the release of 300 children following pledges to cease the use of child soldiers,[33] there are fears that this development may be short-lived due to ongoing aggression in the region.[34] Similarly, while Chad officially ceased using children in its armed forces in 2014,[35] there is evidence that it has failed to implement its own protocols on the handover of previously recruited children.[36]

Madagascar, Malawi, Zambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Eritrea are within the top 20 countries for child marriage worldwide.[37] Early marriage remained a significant problem in the region, with UNICEF predicting that half of the world's child brides in 2050 will be African.[38] Despite progress in the North African region,[39] the Sub-Sahara failed to achieve similar results.[40] In fact, a doubled rate of reduction of child marriage would not be enough for absolute numbers to decrease in the Sub-Sahara.[41] The interplay of conflict and marriage is significant with the Central African Republic experiencing a significant number of internally-displaced people[42] and the second highest rate of child marriage in the region.[43] Broader economic conditions have varied, but with ultimately disappointing effects on child marriage. While unemployment and reduced wealth led men to marry later, this effect was not observed in women.[44] Similarly, the decreased availability of 'economically desirable' men did not appear to discourage child marriage.[45] Rather, poverty and education remained the most significant predictors of progress in this area.[46]

RankCountryEstimated percent of population in modern slaveryEstimated number in modern slaveryPopulation
1Democratic Republic of the Congo1.130873,10077,267,000
1Sudan1.130454,70040,235,000
1South Sudan1.130139,40012,340,000
1Somalia1.130121,90010,787,000
1Central African Republic1.13055,4004,900,000
2Mauritania1.05843,0004,068,000
3Gambia0.87817,5001,991,000
4Madagascar0.674163,40024,235,000
4Malawi0.674116,10017,215,000
4Zambia0.674109,30016,212,000
4Sierra Leone0.67443,5006,453,000
4Eritrea0.67435,3005,228,000
4Namibia0.67416,6002,459,000
4Lesotho0.67414,4002,135,000
4Swaziland0.6748,7001,287,000
5Tanzania0.638341,40053,470,000
5Angola0.638159,70025,022,000
5Ivory Coast0.638144,90022,702,000
5Niger0.638127,00019,899,000
5Burkina Faso0.638115,60018,106,000
5Zimbabwe0.63899,60015,603,000
5Chad0.63889,60014,037,000
5Guinea0.63880,50012,609,000
5Rwanda0.63874,10011,610,000
5Burundi0.63871,40011,179,000
5Togo0.63846,6007,305,000
5Republic of the Congo0.63829,5004,620,000
5Liberia0.63828,7004,503,000
6Uganda0.626244,40039,032,000
6Cameroon0.626146,10023,344,000
6Mali0.626110,20017,600,000
7Guinea-Bissau0.62011,4001,844,000
8Mozambique0.520145,60027,978,000
8Senegal0.52078,70015,129,000
8Botswana0.52011,8002,262,000
8Djibouti0.5204,600888,000
9Nigeria0.481875,500182,202,000
10South Africa0.453248,70054,954,000
10Cape Verde0.4532,400521,000
11Ethiopia0.414411,60099,391,000
12Kenya0.410188,80046,050,000
13Ghana0.377103,30027,410,000
14Benin0.29532,10010,880,000
14Gabon0.2955,1001,725,000
14Equatorial Guinea0.2952,500845,000
15Mauritius0.1652,1001,265,000
RankCountryEstimated percent of population in modern slaveryEstimated number in modern slaveryPopulation

Uzbekistan is the world’s sixth largest producer of cotton. During the annual cotton harvest, citizens are subjected to statesanctioned forced labour. Monitoring by international organisations has meant the government has begun to take steps to improve the situation, however, reports from the 2015 harvest estimate that over one million people were forced to work.

Photo credit, Simon Buxton/Anti-Slavery International

Vulnerability

What factors explain or predict the prevalence of modern slavery?

Modern slavery in the Sub-Sahara was enabled by economic conditions, violent conflict and territorial displacement, in addition to widespread humanitarian and environmental crises.[47] The escalation of violence in Nigeria following the Boko Haram conflict[48] has had widespread effects on Nigeria and across the region, particularly in Cameroon where refugees fleeing conflict have sparked a humanitarian crisis.[49] As of February 2016, 2.5 million people were displaced as a result of the conflict and 20,000 people have been killed.[50] Conflict is also prevalent in Chad and Cameroon, where Boko Haram is also active in creating violent conflicts, and in recruiting young entrepreneurs through predatory loans.[51]


Average Vulnerability Score

47.3/100


Displacement increases the risk of internal trafficking. In Burundi, politically-motivated violence associated with President Pierre Nkurunziza's third term has led to the displacement of at least 145,000 people.[52] The ongoing conflict in Somalia[53] and Rwanda[54] similarly continued to create vulnerability through displacement. Due to the ongoing civil war in the CAR, approximately one-quarter of the country's population have been internally displaced and approximately 450,000 remain displaced.[55] Displaced children, in particular, are at risk of domestic servitude, forced labour in agricultural industries and commercial sexual exploitation in the cities.[56] Continuing unrest in the DRC has left 2.8 million people displaced[57] and at risk of exploitation by armed groups in forced labour and compulsory military service.[58] Homeless children in the state-controlled capital of Kinshasa in the DRC were also at risk of domestic servitude, forced begging and commercial sexual exploitation.[59]

Slowed economic growth[60] and a failure to invest in domestic employment[61] pushed citizens from central and western states of Sub-Saharan Africa to seek work in Europe and the Middle East.[62] These factors created the perfect conditions for internal and transnational exploitation, as individuals migrating from poverty-stricken rural areas to cities in search of employment were left vulnerable to exploitative labour conditions[63] and persons abandoning their home countries often took dangerous migratory paths which also increased the risk of exploitation.

The critical migratory paths through and from Sub-Saharan Africa are affected by violence and lawlessness; Migrants travelling to Saudi Arabia through Yemen were misinformed about the extent of the conflict.[64] Internal conflict and terrorist attacks left many stranded in the country[65] and vulnerable to exploitation. Abduction and trafficking were also common along the Red Sea coast leading there, especially in lawless regions of eastern Sudan[66] and along the Ethiopian/Eritrean border.[67] Trafficking from, through and to Somalia has also been widely reported.[68] While some of these victims are destined for the Middle East and Europe,[69] there are reports that children fleeing the Yemeni conflict have been transported to Kenya for the purpose of sexual exploitation.[70]

While migrants had previously attempted to reach Europe through Egypt and Israel, both countries have tightened border security.[71] Consequently, Mediterranean routes to Italy and the Baltic states through Libya became more popular.[72] This region is still experiencing significant instability after the ousting of Muammar Gaddafi in 2011.[73] Since the Islamic State occupied the southern city of Sirte, it and the transitional government have been fighting for control over the country.[74] Within Libya, virtual lawlessness, large populations of vulnerable migrant workers wanting to travel on to Europe willing to work to earn their passage, and xenophobia towards Sub-Saharan migrants[75] allowed trafficking networks to operate without fear of prosecution.

A pervading culture of family-orientated collectivism, in which gender roles are rigid and seniority is highly revered[76] persists in many countries across the region. Interactions between these values, geopolitical conditions and economic factors contribute to the relative stability of forced and child marriage. Renewed conflict and internal displacement created a need for physical and economic security—conditions frequently cited to justify child marriage.[77]

CountryCivil & Political ProtectionsSocial, Health, & Economic RightsPersonal SecurityRefugees & ConflictMean
Angola56.3249.5445.9525.0244.21
Benin46.9536.5239.7014.9034.52
Botswana37.2542.8246.3819.2136.42
Burkina Faso59.5540.7740.7325.9841.76
Burundi64.0852.2251.4037.1751.22
Cameroon61.3143.3747.9552.5151.29
Cape Verde33.3320.3055.4036.3436.34
Central African Republic83.6748.6785.4362.2170.00
Chad70.4749.9647.9840.9452.34
Democratic Republic of the Congo78.4256.3356.7282.4368.48
Djibouti49.1343.6155.2532.4245.10
Equatorial Guinea56.6640.6246.381.0036.16
Eritrea59.4451.0562.8824.8249.55
Ethiopia59.7554.6834.1659.7752.09
Gabon51.5831.5142.3816.9735.61
Gambia59.3029.2774.1822.6346.35
Ghana51.8938.4247.4528.2641.51
Guinea66.8941.5852.6828.6747.45
Guinea-Bissau62.0840.5070.2522.4748.82
Ivory Coast62.0738.7246.2233.4545.11
Kenya54.5352.8446.7572.2856.60
Lesotho40.3352.2668.239.5842.60
Liberia57.9344.6244.4529.4344.11
Madagascar50.3750.8752.8615.9942.52
Malawi54.6356.7447.7821.0645.05
Mali64.0434.0831.6957.4146.80
Mauritania65.9640.5449.8530.7446.77
Mauritius29.2424.4926.581.0020.33
Mozambique39.9148.4654.4035.8644.65
Namibia39.0043.6851.4218.2738.09
Niger57.7048.1742.1340.3847.10
Nigeria60.9447.8459.7680.8462.34
Republic of the Congo65.1744.6952.4328.9447.81
Rwanda55.4447.6546.2342.0047.83
Senegal44.9742.3136.9635.4839.93
Sierra Leone50.5753.2941.7217.7040.82
Somalia73.0364.8255.9774.4667.07
South Africa40.2743.0658.3041.8445.87
South Sudan74.7350.7060.8076.1565.59
Sudan80.6454.1246.1885.0466.49
Swaziland57.6953.8867.3315.3948.57
Tanzania51.6654.6747.6640.4648.61
Togo64.7839.8247.7824.0944.12
Uganda54.8952.1839.4548.7348.81
Zambia45.1058.7650.0324.4644.59
Zimbabwe60.2852.2548.9226.7847.06
CountryCivil & Political ProtectionsSocial, Health, & Economic RightsPersonal SecurityRefugees & ConflictMean

From the 'Less than Human' series. A large cargo boat is seen in Songkla Port, Thailand. 09/03/2014. Photographer Chris Kelly worked undercover to expose the link between prawns being sold in big name supermarkets, and the slaves who live and work on Thai fishing boats miles out to sea.

Photo credit, Chris Kelly

Government Response

How are governments tackling modern slavery?

Government responses to modern slavery in Sub-Saharan Africa were characterised by inadequate victim protection and a lack of coordination between government agencies and NGO bodies. Somalia,[78] the Democratic Republic of Congo,[79] Sudan[80] and Chad[81] faced severe political instability and internal violence, including losing control of areas within their borders, consequently reducing their capacity to combat modern slavery. In Somalia, the government only controlled the capital of Mogadishu and a small number of surrounding areas.[82] Consequently, reliable data on the steps taken by the government to combat modern slavery was unavailable.


Average Government Response Rating

28.2/100


Despite 33 of the 45 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa running campaigns against known modern slavery risks since 2010, few have raised awareness on methods to identify victims. The only country to make this an annual practice was Burundi, whose Children and Ethics Brigade ran anti-trafficking awareness programmes from at least 2011 to 2014.[83] While 28 countries provided a mechanism to report modern slavery, less than half covered all demographics and even fewer had evidence of translation services. Comprehensive reporting mechanisms were only provided in South Africa and Lesotho. Almost 40 countries provided some form of victim assistance; of these, 30 governments actively contributed to victim support services. Unfortunately, less than half of these governments provided services for long-term reintegration and, moreover, there is a significant gap across Sub-Saharan Africa of victim support services for adults and men. Yet, even where services are available, the quality of support remains an important issue; for example, in Malawi, the sole government-run shelter which only protects children has been criticised as "so dire that children exploited in child prostitution returned to the brothels from which they had been removed".[84]

Although almost 20 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa had produced an NAP addressing modern slavery issues, none provides adequate funding for plans to be implemented. Few governments in the region took steps to investigate domestic labour conditions in the informal sector, and there were several countries where labour regulations do not cover the informal sector, such as Rwanda.[85] In terms of investigation, 27 countries had a law enforcement unit dedicated to modern slavery issues. However, most lacked sufficient resources in terms of funding or staff to function properly. Additionally, evidence of standard operating procedures was only found in Ghana. Only Gambia, Nigeria and Senegal provided victim and witness protection mechanisms inside the court and only Gambia, Malawi, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, and Swaziland provided protection outside the court. Moreover, despite the prevalence of children exploited in the region, only 13 countries[86] provided special measures for children in criminal proceedings.

While 26 countries have criminalised the trafficking of men, women and children and 25 have criminalised forced labour, fewer have adequately criminalised other forms of modern slavery. Only 14 countries criminalised both buyers and facilitators of commercial sexual exploitation of children and only six criminalised forced marriage. Only Burkina Faso has criminalised all forms of modern slavery, including the use of children in armed conflict. However, the introduction of legislation does not necessarily result in adequate sentences.[87] In 11 countries, sentences were found to be disproportionate to crimes committed. For instance, child traffickers in Benin were released on suspended sentences. Similarly, in Tanzania, a labour trafficker was punished with monetary compensation and an administrative fine.[88]

Every country within Sub-Saharan Africa is involved in regional bodies acting against modern slavery or human trafficking; moreover, 19 have signed bilateral agreements to cooperate on modern slavery issues. These bilateral agreements included preventing the deportation of victims, as between DRC and Angola. However, information on the effectiveness of implementation of these agreements is not available.

Credit RatingCountrySurvivors SupportedCriminal JusticeCoordination & AccountabilityAddressing RiskGovernment & BusinessTotal Score
BNigeria50.7459.6350.0045.240.0047.54
BUganda50.9350.1937.5059.520.0047.36
BSouth Africa38.8955.7431.2564.290.0043.98
BSierra Leone44.4445.5643.7554.760.0042.99
BMozambique53.8950.5612.5047.620.0040.85
BBenin38.7020.5656.2566.670.0040.55
BSenegal49.6332.5925.0054.760.0040.20
CCCBurkina Faso47.4130.5637.5042.860.0037.86
CCCRwanda30.9345.1931.2554.760.0036.78
CCCLesotho31.4825.7450.0059.520.0036.66
CCCEthiopia21.3033.3362.5052.380.0035.01
CCCDjibouti25.0028.8937.5059.520.0034.46
CCCCameroon30.3733.8937.5047.620.0034.29
CCCIvory Coast37.9630.1950.0030.950.0033.55
CCCZambia33.8929.8143.7538.100.0033.06
CCCGambia22.5935.1937.5045.240.0031.47
CCCNamibia28.1522.0431.2552.380.0031.33
CCCMauritius34.4427.4118.7545.240.0030.93
CCCLiberia27.2227.4131.2550.000.0030.59
CCCSwaziland36.3022.0437.5042.860.0030.46
CCGabon30.0024.2625.0045.240.0029.72
CCTanzania27.0426.4825.0047.620.0028.84
CCChad26.8512.0431.2552.380.0028.77
CCGhana22.0430.1925.0045.240.0028.43
CCMadagascar31.3014.4431.2542.860.0027.33
CCBotswana24.8114.8137.5042.860.0026.22
CCMauritania25.0032.4112.5040.480.0025.88
CCMalawi32.2221.1112.5038.100.0025.19
CCBurundi29.6314.8118.7538.100.0023.90
CCKenya21.8527.416.2542.860.0023.50
CCNiger12.4129.2625.0040.480.0022.95
CCRepublic of the Congo22.228.8937.5035.710.0022.33
CCMali15.1912.0443.7533.330.0022.04
CCSudan24.0727.416.2533.330.0021.84
CCAngola20.3720.3731.2528.570.0021.52
CCZimbabwe15.3720.5612.5042.860.0020.85
CCGuinea-Bissau14.8132.0425.0021.430.0020.56
CCape Verde15.1915.3725.0030.950.0019.48
CTogo26.484.6331.2519.050.0018.73
CSouth Sudan20.371.4818.7528.570.0015.69
CDemocratic Republic of the Congo7.7811.6731.2526.190.0015.01
CGuinea2.7812.9631.2528.570.0014.28
CCentral African Republic14.8117.2212.507.140.0011.02
DEquatorial Guinea0.0018.520.0023.810.008.92
DEritrea0.002.960.0026.190.005.18
NO DATASomalia
Credit RatingCountrySurvivors SupportedCriminal JusticeCoordination & AccountabilityAddressing RiskGovernment & BusinessTotal Score

Rajshahi, Bangladesh, January 2013. Dipa is 13 years old and has been engaged in prostitution for five months. She used to go to school, but stopped in class three after her family could no longer afford to send her. Her two sisters are also engaged in prostitution, but clients prefer to visit Dipa as she is the youngest of the three. She gets between four or five clients and earns about 1,200 Taka (US$15) a day.

Photo credit, Pep Bonet/ NOOR

Footnotes

  1. Lewis Slimelane, 'Swaziland is a trafficking hub – report', IOL News, November 18, 2014, accessed 21/04/2016:  http://www.iol.co.za/news/africa/swaziland-is-a-trafficking-hub---report-1782123
  2. 'Swaziland: Swazi Govt Misleads On Child Labour', All Africa, January 20, 2015, accessed 21/04/2016:  http://allafrica.com/stories/201501201394.html
  3. Human Rights Council, Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in Eritrea, (United Nations General Assembly, 2015), pp. 13–14, accessed 21/04/2016:  https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G15/114/50/PDF/G1511450.pdf?OpenElement
  4. As above. P. 12.  https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G15/114/50/PDF/G1511450.pdf?OpenElement, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-eritrea-idUSKBN0E71ND20140527.
  5. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Eligibility Guidelines for Assessing the International Protection Needs of Asylum Seekers from Eritrea, (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2011), pp. 14–16, accessed 21/04/2016:  http://www.refworld.org/docid/4dafe0ec2.html
  6. UK Border Agency, Operational Guidance Note: Eritrea, (Home Office, 2009), p. 9, accessed 21/04/2016:  http://www.refworld.org/docid/49c39c212.html
  7. United Kingdom Home Office, Country and Information Guidance Eritrea: Illegal Exit, (Government of the United Kingdom, 2015), pp. 7–8, accessed 21/04/2016:  https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/459486/Eritrea_-_Illegal_Exit_-_v2_0e.pdf
  8. Hannah McNeish, 'South Sudan: women and girls raped as 'wages' for government-allied fighters', The Guardian, September 28, 2015, accessed 21/04/2016: ; see also Tristan McConnell, 'The rape camps of South Sudan,' AFP Correspondent, October 7, 2015, accessed 21/04/2016: ; see also Hannah McNeish, 'Reliving the rape camps of South Sudan's civil war', Al Jazeera, September 29, 2015, accessed 21/04/2016:  http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/sep/28/south-sudan-women-girls-raped-as-wages-for-government-allied-fighters, http://blogs.afp.com/correspondent/?post/the-rape-camps-of-south-sudan, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2015/09/reliving-rape-camps-south-sudan-civil-war-150929121909936.html
  9. Hannah McNeish, 'South Sudan: women and girls raped as 'wages' for government-allied fighters,' The Guardian, September 28, 2015, accessed 21/04/16: ; see also Tristan McConnell, 'The rape camps of South Sudan,' AFP Correspondent, October 7, 2015, accessed 21/04/2016:  http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/sep/28/south-sudan-women-girls-raped-as-wages-for-government-allied-fighters, http://blogs.afp.com/correspondent/?post/the-rape-camps-of-south-sudan
  10. Hannah McNeish, 'Reliving the rape camps of South Sudan's civil war,' Al Jazeera, September 29, 2015, accessed 21/04/2016:  http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2015/09/reliving-rape-camps-south-sudan-civil-war-150929121909936.html
  11. Hannah McNeish, 'South Sudan: women and girls raped as 'wages' for government-allied fighters,' The Guardian, September 28, 2015, accessed 21/04/16: ; see also Tristan McConnell, 'The rape camps of South Sudan,' AFP Correspondent, October 7, 2015, accessed 21/04/2016:  http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/sep/28/south-sudan-women-girls-raped-as-wages-for-government-allied-fighters, http://blogs.afp.com/correspondent/?post/the-rape-camps-of-south-sudan
  12. Neftalem Fikre Hailemeskel, 'Ethiopia: Human Trafficking or Human Slavery,' All Africa, January 10, 2015, accessed 21/04/2016: ; see also Harriet Grant, 'Sinai slavery and torture survivors share their experiences', The Guardian, February 21, 2014, 21/04/16:  http://allafrica.com/stories/201501120064.html, http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/feb/20/sinai-slavery-and-torture-survivors-share-their-experiences-israeli-ethiopian
  13. International Labour Organisation/International Programme on Elimination of Child Labour (ILO/IPEC), Analytical Study on Child Labour In Lake Volta Fishing in Ghana: as cited by Made in a Free World:  http://www.madeinafreeworld.com/ghana
  14. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Global Report on Trafficking in Persons, (United Nations, 2014), p. 7, accessed 21/04/2016:  https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/glotip/GLOTIP_2014_ full_report.pdf
  15. As above.  https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/glotip/GLOTIP_2014_full_report.pdf
  16. As above.  https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/glotip/GLOTIP_2014_full_report.pdf
  17. 'Documentary: Togo's Real Cinderellas', Jane La Bous, March 31, 2015, accessed 29/03/2016:  http://janelabous.com/2015/03/documentary-togos-trafficked-cinderellas-tell-tales-of-modern-slavery/
  18. 'Benin/Togo: protecting migrating children, Tdh brings the media on board', Terre des Hommes, October 21, 2015, accessed 29/03/2016:  http://www.tdh.ch/en/news/benin-togo-protecting-migrating-children-tdh-brings-media
  19. 'Documentary: Togo's Real Cinderellas', Jane La Bous, March 31, 2015, accessed 29/03/2016:  http://janelabous.com/2015/03/documentary-togos-trafficked-cinderellas-tell-tales-of-modern-slavery/
  20. As above.  http://janelabous.com/2015/03/documentary-togos-trafficked-cinderellas-tell-tales-of-modern-slavery/
  21. As above.  http://janelabous.com/2015/03/documentary-togos-trafficked-cinderellas-tell-tales-of-modern-slavery/
  22. 'Documentary: Togo's Real Cinderellas', Jane La Bous, March 31, 2015, accessed 29/03/2016:  http://janelabous.com/2015/03/documentary-togos-trafficked-cinderellas-tell-tales-of-modern-slavery/
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