Country Study
24 of 167Prevalence Index Rank

Poland

  • 181,100 Estimate number living in Modern Slavery
  • 0.48% Estimate percentage of population living in Modern Slavery
  • 26.66/100 Vulnerability to Modern Slavery
  • BB Government Response Rating
  • 38,025,000 Population
  • $24,744 GDP (PPP)

Prevalence

How many people are in modern slavery in Poland?

The 2016 Global Slavery Index estimates 181,100 people or 0.48% percent of the total population live in conditions of modern slavery in Poland. This is based on a random-sample, nationallyrepresentative survey undertaken in 2015, that sought to identify instances of both forced marriage and forced labour within the general population (survey conducted in Polish language).


Country Findings of Prevalence

181,100

Estimate number enslaved


Forced labour

Forced labour affects migrant populations within Poland and Polish citizens migrating overseas. Walk Free Foundation survey data suggests construction (45 percent), domestic labour (31 percent), other manual labour (eight percent), and manufacturing (six percent) were sectors of concern Within Poland, migrant labourers from nearby Eastern European countries, such as Ukraine, Bulgaria and Romania,[2] and parts of South East Asia, are vulnerable to exploitation in the construction, agriculture, retail and domestic sectors.[3]

While previously victims of exploitation were predominately from the former Soviet Union, there has been a shift in recent years to an increase in the number of identified victims from Asia,[4] including Vietnam, the Philippines, China and Korea.[5] In 2014, the Border Guard identified 31 victims of forced labour, 19 of whom originated from the Philippines. When cases of domestic servitude are included, this figure increases to 34 forced labour victims, of which 21 were from the Philippines.[6] A study released by the European Alliance for Human Rights in North Korea implicated Polish firms in the use of North Korean forced labour. As many as 800 North Koreans are believed to be working in the country, primarily in shipyards and orchards.[7] Even those migrants who legally enter the country may become subject to forced labour. In 2010, 58 Thai migrant workers who entered the country with work permits, for example, were made to work excessive hours, received limited food and were not paid full wages.[8]

Polish nationals made up the fifth largest group of European Union (EU)-registered trafficking victims experiencing exploitation within the EU between 2010 and 2012.[9] Most of these individuals were identified in the UK (405), Poland (263) and the Netherlands (187).[10] In 2012, 54 individuals were identified as victims of labour exploitation;[11] victims are recruited online, attracted by the promise of employment and the provision of accommodation and transport.[12] Polish victims in the UK are most likely to be victims of labour exploitation and have been forced to work in agriculture, construction, factories and car washes.[13] Polish men and women have also experienced modern slavery in the UK, the Netherlands, Germany and France.[14]

Forced begging

Regionally-organised crime syndicates are implicated in forced begging rings. Roma mothers from poor communities in Moldova and the Ukraine are offered jobs in the sales or care sectors in Poland but have their passports confiscated upon arrival.[15] Along with their children, they are forced to beg on the streets and report their daily intake back to the trafficker. Children as young as three and five have been identified in cases of Ukrainian nationals trafficked to Poland for forced begging.[16]

In 2014, the police identified only one case of forced begging. However the Border Guard found three suspected cases; in every instance, the victims were Romanian citizens.[17]

Commercial sexual exploitation

Forced prostitution and commercial sexual exploitation affect women and girls trafficked in and out of Poland. Of 50 trafficking victims identified by Polish police in 2014, the majority were women. These women, including one minor, were trafficked for prostitution or pornography.[18] Most of the victims originated from the Ukraine.[19] The Polish Border Guards have also identified Bulgarian Roma people as victims, who are typically involved in 'roadside prostitution'. An investigation by the Maritime Border Guard identified two citizens of Bulgaria and one citizen of Poland as victims of human trafficking for prostitution.[20] A study of prosecutions for the crime of commercial sexual exploitation of children found that 14 children were trafficked within Poland and one child trafficked to Germany between September 2011 and February 2012.[21]

Despite existing literature giving evidence of CSE cases in Poland, the Walk Free survey did not identify any victims in this sector. The survey result may not indicate an absence of cases but possibly a lack of willingness to self-identify or report this issue. We will continue to work with experts to identify the most robust ways to ensure the issue of sexual exploitation is fully accounted for in our survey results in future.

Exploitation of persons to obtain loans and benefits by deceit

An emerging issue in Poland is the exploitation of vulnerable persons to obtain benefits or loans by deceit. In recent years, there have been reported cases in the UK of Polish citizens forced to take out social benefits or loans, the proceeds of which go to criminal networks. In 2013, the Central Bureau of Investigation (UK) reported ten investigations of this type of crime.[22]

The Ministry of the Interior reported that Polish-based criminal gangs have targeted gaps in the financial and social welfare systems of the UK and Germany. These gangs target people in a precarious financial situation who are deceived to believe that they will receive a job at the end of the process. Most of the victims are middle-aged men, but these criminal networks have been known to transport entire families to receive greater social welfare benefits.[23]

Walk Free Foundation 2015 survey data

Number % % male victims % female victims
Forced labour 181,100 100 56 44
Forced marriage 0 0 0 0
Modern slavery total 181,100 100 56 44
Forced labour by sector of exploitation %
Domestic work 31
Construction 45
Manufacturing 6
Other manufacturing 8
Farming 0
Sex Industry 0
Drug production 0
Retail sector 0
Other 0
DK 0
Refused 10
Total 100

Uzbekistan is the world’s sixth largest producer of cotton. During the annual cotton harvest, citizens are subjected to statesanctioned forced labour. Monitoring by international organisations has meant the government has begun to take steps to improve the situation, however, reports from the 2015 harvest estimate that over one million people were forced to work.

Photo credit, Simon Buxton/Anti-Slavery International

Vulnerability

What factors explain or predict the prevalence of modern slavery in Poland?

High levels of unemployment in Poland, significant rates of emigration to Western Europe, the low socioeconomic status of citizens in neighbouring countries and regional instability contribute to the vulnerability of nationals and migrants to modern slavery both within Poland and in Western Europe.


Average Vulnerability Score

26.66/100


CountryCivil & Political ProtectionsSocial, Health, & Economic RightsPersonal SecurityRefugees & ConflictMean
Poland34.7619.5029.0723.3326.66

Economic factors remain the chief motivator for Polish emigration.[24] Official unemployment figures have hovered around 10 percent since the end of 2012, although this has recently decreased to approximately 7 percent at the close of 2015.[25] Youth unemployment, however, has remained relatively high at nearly 21 percent in 2015.[26] The outflow of labour from Poland has stabilised,[27] but there are still around two million Polish people living abroad as of 2015, with 640,000 Polish residing in the United Kingdom (UK) alone.[28]

Polish migrants tend to be from rural areas and the main breadwinners of their families[29] and, as such, there is pressure to find work, often at the expense of basic labour conditions.

Research conducted in the UK shows that migrants from Eastern European Accession countries, including Poland, suffer from discrimination, insecure conditions, substandard pay, racial stereotyping and skill degradation.[30]

Significant emigration of Polish citizens, a growing economy,[31] and historical links with South East Asian Communist countries[32] has led to an influx of economic migrants from South East Asia. Migrants from Asia, in particular, face difficulties integrating into Polish society.[33] While Poland is considered a relatively peaceful country, discrimination towards migrant workers and minorities[34] can lead to isolation[35] and an increase in vulnerability to exploitation. According to a 2013 study from the Centre of Research on Prejudice at the University of Warsaw, up to 69 percent of Poles do not want 'non-whites' living in Poland, believing that they deprive Poles of employment and have a detrimental effect on the economy.[36] Coupled with a limited understanding of the Polish language, migrants are vulnerable to exploitation and have difficulties accessing support once exploitation has occurred.

Ongoing conflict and the economic crisis in the Ukraine has led to increasing numbers of refugees[37] and economic migrants leaving the Ukraine to neighbouring countries, including Poland.[38] Ukrainians make up the largest group of registered foreign workers in Poland, with an increase in the issuance of declarations of intent and work permits in recent years. In the first half or 2015, more than 20,000 permits were issued, twice that for the same period in 2012.[39] [40] Limited and contradicting data exists on the overall number of registered and unregistered migrants.[41] [42] However, there are estimates of between 300,000 and 500,000 Ukrainians working in Poland.[43] Those who are undocumented are vulnerable to exploitation and forced labour.[44] There have been cases, for example, where economic migrants have become vulnerable to traffickers en route to and in Poland, and in neighbouring Russia, Germany, Belarus and Israel.[45]

From the 'Less than Human' series. A large cargo boat is seen in Songkla Port, Thailand. 09/03/2014. Photographer Chris Kelly worked undercover to expose the link between prawns being sold in big name supermarkets, and the slaves who live and work on Thai fishing boats miles out to sea.

Photo credit, Chris Kelly

Government Response

How is the Poland Government tackling modern slavery?

The Government of Poland has been largely reactive in responding to modern slavery in recent years[46] while it is unclear what steps the new government (elected in October 2015) will take to tackle this crime. The National Action Plan 2013—2015 (NAP) outlines provisions to address the most critical areas of response. Implementation of the NAP has been largely successful. The government succeeded in amending the legislation relating to third-country nationals,[47] expanding victim identification processes,[48] setting standards for the provision of assistance to victims,[49] and training employees of crisis centres, NGOs and consular staff on identification and assistance mechanisms.[50] The government set aside the equivalent of US$363,000 for the implementation of NAP activities in 2014,[51] which reflects a gradual increase in State funding over recent years for programs to combat human trafficking. However, legislation related to third-country nationals has been criticised for its complexity and ambiguity[52] while a lack of standardised data collection techniques prevents comparability of case data between different agencies. Some measures were also delayed due to a lack of financing or other difficulties.[53] The current NAP expired in December 2015; NAPs are typically issued every three years.[54] However, there is no indication when the new government will approve a new NAP or what the budget will be.[55]


Government Response Rating

BB


The government is beginning to respond to the issue of forced labour, as opposed to focusing its efforts entirely on forced prostitution. While protection services are still geared towards protecting women and children who have experienced sexual exploitation,[56] [57] the government has indicated that victims of forced labour are provided with support.[58] In 2010, the Penal Code was amended so that its definition of trafficking was more explicit about the inclusion of forced labour, and, therefore, better reflected the United Nations Trafficking Protocol of 2000.[59] To curb the exploitation of Polish citizens abroad, from 2014, the Police Unit cooperated with the Irish, English and Scottish police to prevent and address cases of forced labour.[60] The small number of criminal law cases of forced labour (only eight in 2014),[61] however, suggests that there is still low awareness of forced labour among police, prosecutors[62] [63] and labour inspectors[64] [65] as well as a low understanding of available mechanisms for recourse among migrant workers, particularly those working without documentation.[66]

As part of its NAP, the Government of Poland, through the International Organisation for Migration (IOM), organised a meeting for consular staff and government officials at the Embassy of the Philippines. This meeting detailed the dangers that migrant workers, particularly women, may encounter.[67]

Poland also imposes licensing regulations on private employment agencies and, by law, it is an offence for job seekers to pay for their placement.[68] Despite such initiatives, the low awareness of migrant's rights remains an issue.

Victims of trafficking are entitled to a three-month 'reflection period' in which they can decide whether to participate in criminal proceedings; however GRETA (Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings) notes that this was not effectively communicated to victims and as such the right was rarely exercised.[69]

Poland has made no visible attempts to work with businesses to address modern slavery. Businesses are not included in the previous National Action Plan while the level of knowledge of the effects of modern slavery in supply chains and how to engage business remains low.[70] Research suggests that business people do not consider it their responsibility to eliminate forced or exploitative labour,[71] contributing to high levels of exploitation in this sector.

Rajshahi, Bangladesh, January 2013. Dipa is 13 years old and has been engaged in prostitution for five months. She used to go to school, but stopped in class three after her family could no longer afford to send her. Her two sisters are also engaged in prostitution, but clients prefer to visit Dipa as she is the youngest of the three. She gets between four or five clients and earns about 1,200 Taka (US$15) a day.

Photo credit, Pep Bonet/ NOOR

Recommendations

What do we recommend

Government

  • Enact a new National Action Plan, with a corresponding budget.
  • Develop and implement a campaign to shift community and business perception around forced and exploitative labour.
  • Develop policies that require businesses to conduct audits and inspections to identify forced labour throughout their supply chains.
  • Continue investigations of organised crime gangs in relation to human trafficking and forced begging.
  • Conduct targeted and relevant raising-awareness campaigns among migrant populations to raise awareness of their rights. In particular, promote their entitlement to a three-month reflection period to decide whether to participate in the criminal process.
  • Extend existing trafficking training for front-line law enforcement to include a systematic and comprehensive program on forced labour.
  • Ensure trafficking training for prosecutors and judges is adequately financed and delivered in a systematic fashion.
  • Develop and implement a standardised approach for collecting data on modern slavery.

Business

  • Ensure that employees are not paying recruitment fees to receive a job.
  • Ensure that employees are only recruited from registered employment agencies.[72]
  • Businesses should familiarise themselves with international labour standards, which are also enshrined in Polish Law, and introduce these standards into their Code of Conduct[73] and supplier contracts.

Footnotes

  1. Katie Harris, 'Forced Labour in the UK: ‘There was No Escape. I Lived Every Day in Fear', The Guardian, November 21, 2013, accessed 24/02/16:  http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/nov/20/forced-labour-uk-escape-fear-polish-migrant
  2. Interview with Human Trafficking Studies Centre, February 4th, 2016. 
  3. As above. 
  4. Maxim Tucker, 'Sex, Lies and Psychological Scars: Inside Ukraine's Human Trafficking Crisis', The Guardian, February 4, 2016 accessed 05/02/2016:  http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/feb/04/sex-lies-psychological-scars-ukraine-human-trafficking-crisis
  5. Interview with Human Trafficking Studies Centre, February 4th, 2016. 
  6. Unit Against Trafficking in Human Beings, Trafficking in Human Beings, (Ministry of the Interior, 2015), p. 6, accessed 25/01/2016:  http://www.handelludzmi.eu/hle/database/other-documents/6826, Trafficking-Human-Beings-2014-report.html
  7. Colin Freeman, 'Poland and Malta Accused of Using North Korean 'Forced Labour'', The Telegraph, September 30, 2015, accessed 22/01/15:  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/northkorea/11901507/Poland-and-Malta-accused-of-using-North-Korean-forced-labour.html
  8. Anti-Slavery International and International Trade Union Confederation, Never Work Alone: Trade Unions and NGOs Joining Forces to Combat Forced Labour and Trafficking in Europe, (Anti-Slavery International and International Trade Union Confederation, 2011), pp. 30–31. 
  9. Eurostat, Trafficking in Human Beings, (European Union, 2015), p. 35, accessed 22/01/2016:  https://ec.europa.eu/anti-trafficking/publications/trafficking-human-beings-eurostat-2015-edition_en
  10. As above. 
  11. As above. 
  12. The cost of accommodation and transport is then deducted from their wages upon arrival, see Unit Against Trafficking in Human Beings, Trafficking in Human Beings, (Ministry of the Interior, 2015), p. 10, accessed 25/01/2016:  http://www.handelludzmi.eu/hle/database/other-documents/6826, Trafficking-Human-Beings-2014-report.html
  13. Dominic Casciani, 'Rise in UK Trafficking, Slavery and Exploitation', BBC, September 30, 2014, accessed 12/04/2016: 
  14. Eurostat, Trafficking in Human Beings, (European Union, 2015), p. 35, accessed 22/01/2016:  https://ec.europa.eu/anti-trafficking/publications/trafficking-human-beings-eurostat-2015-edition_en
  15. Expert Group for Cooperation on Children at Risk, Children Trafficked for Exploitation in Begging and Criminality: A Challenge for Law Enforcement and Child Protection, (Council of the Baltic Sea States, 2013), p. 10. 
  16. Maxim Tucker, "Sex, Lies and Psychological Scars: Inside Ukraine's Human Trafficking Crisis", The Guardian, February 4, 2016 accessed 05/02/2016:  http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/feb/04/sex-lies-psychological-scars-ukraine-human-trafficking-crisis
  17. Unit Against Trafficking in Human Beings, Trafficking in Human Beings, (Ministry of the Interior, 2015), p. 6, accessed 25/01/2016:  http://www.handelludzmi.eu/hle/database/other-documents/6826, Trafficking-Human-Beings-2014-report.html
  18. As above. 
  19. As above. 
  20. As above. 
  21. Nobody's Children Foundation, Trafficking in Children: The Problem in Poland and in the World, (Nobody's Children Foundation, 2012), accessed 22/01/2016, 
  22. Ministry of the Interior, Implementation of the National Action Plan, (Ministry of the Interior, 2014) cited in Zbigniew Lasocik et al., ; see also Country Strategy Report: Modern Slavery Landscape in Poland 2014, (Walk Free, 2014), p.16, accessed 24/01/2016. 
  23. Unit Against Trafficking in Human Beings Trafficking in Human Beings, (Ministry of the Interior, 2015), pp.6–7, accessed 25/01/2016:  http://www.handelludzmi.eu/hle/database/other-documents/6826, Trafficking-Human-Beings-2014-report.html
  24. W. A. Kusek and N. Wise, 'Artistic Perceptions of Poles in London', Scottish Geographical Journal, 130, 2, p.99, (2014), cited in Weronika A. Kusak, 'Transnational Identities and Immigrant Spaces of Polish professionals in London, UK', Journal of Cultural Geography 32, 1, 102 (2015). 
  25. Unemployment rate as a percentage of the labour force. Labour force is the total number of people unemployed and employed aged 15 to 74. Seasonally adjusted. "Harmonised Unemployment Rate by Sex", Eurostat, last modified September 28, 2015,  http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&language=en&pcode=teilm020&tableSelection=1&plugin=1.
  26. 20.9% in 2015. Youth unemployment rate is the number of unemployed people aged 15 to 24 as a percentage of the active population of the same age. "Youth Unemployment Rate — % of Active Population in the Same Age Group", Eurostat, last modified September 28, 2016,  http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=en&pcode=tipslm80&plugin=0
  27. "Poland", International Organization for Migration, last accessed January 22, 2016,  https://www.iom.int/countries/poland/general-information
  28. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 'Country Notes: Recent Changes in Migration Movements and Policies', in International Migration Outlook 2015, (OECD Publishing, 2015), p. 236,  http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/international-migration-outlook-2015_migr_outlook-2015-en
  29. Zbigniew Lasocik & Łukasz Wieczorek, 'Trafficking for Forced Labour in Poland: Research Report' in Trafficking for Forced Labour and Labour Exploitation (FLEX): Towards Increased Knowledge, Cooperation and Exchange of Information in Estonia, Finland and Poland, eds. Anniina Jokinen, Natalia Ollus and Kauko Aromaa (Warsaw: Heuni, 2011), p.199.  http://www.heuni.fi/material/attachments/heuni/reports/6KmRLQd2d/HEUNI_report_68_netti.pdf
  30. Z. Ciupijus, 'Mobile Central Eastern Europeans in Britain: Successful European Union Citizens and Disadvantaged Labour Migrants?', Work, Employment and Society, 25, 540 (2011) cited in Gabriella Albertia, Jane Holgatea and Maite Tapiab, 'Organising Migrants as Workers or as Migrant Workers? Intersectionality, Trade Unions and Precarious Work,' The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24, 22: 4133 (2013). 
  31. Marcin Piatkowski, 'How Poland Became Europe's Growth Champion: Insights from the Successful Post- Socialist Transition', Brookings, February 11, 2015, accessed 08/02/2016:  http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/future-development/posts/2015/02/11-poland-post-socialist-transition-piatkowski
  32. G. Szymanska-Matusiewicz, 'Intergenerational Conflicts in Vietnamese Families in Poland', in People on the Move in Search of Work, Refuge and Belonging, eds. K. Um and S. Gaspar, (Sussex Academic Press, 2016). 
  33. Zbigniew Lasocik & Łukasz Wieczorek, 'Trafficking for Forced Labour in Poland: Research Report' in Trafficking for Forced Labour and Labour Exploitation (FLEX): Towards Increased Knowledge, Cooperation and Exchange of Information in Estonia, Finland and Poland, eds. Anniina Jokinen, Natalia Ollus and Kauko Aromaa (Warsaw: Heuni, 2011), p.199.  http://www.heuni.fi/material/attachments/heuni/reports/6KmRLQd2d/HEUNI_report_68_netti.pdf
  34. Discrimination tests conducted by the Institute of Public Affairs indicated that five out of 100 foreigners faced unequal in Warsaw but that figure was up to four times that in other cities. Joanna Fomina, 'Ukrainians in Poland: In Pursuit of a Better Life?', New Eastern Europe, July 15, 2015, accessed 22/01/2016:  http://neweasterneurope.eu/articles-and-commentary/1815-ukrainians-in-poland-in-pursuit-of-a-better-life
  35. Luciana T. Hakaka and Akram A. Ariss, 'Vulnerable Work and International Migrants: A Relational Human Resource Management Perspective', The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24, 22, 4125 (2013). 
  36. Adam Leszczyński, 'Poles Don't Want Immigrants. They Don't Understand Them, Don't Like Them', The Guardian, July 2, 2015, accessed 22/01/2016:  http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/02/poles-dont-want-immigrants-they-dont-understand-them-dont-like-them
  37. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 'Country Notes: Recent Changes in Migration Movements and Policies', in International Migration Outlook 2015, (OECD Publishing, 2015), 236,  http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/international-migration-outlook-2015_migr_outlook-2015-en
  38. Matthew Luxmoore, "In Poland, a Challenge to Integrate ‘Invisible' Ukrainian Refugees", Aljazeera America, August 23, 2015, accessed 21/01/16:  http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/8/23/poland-integrates-invisible-refugees-east-ukraine.html
  39. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 'Country Notes: Recent Changes in Migration Movements and Policies', in International Migration Outlook 2015, (OECD Publishing, 2015), 236,  http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/international-migration-outlook-2015_migr_outlook-2015-en
  40. Joanna Fomina, 'Ukrainians in Poland: In Pursuit of a Better Life?', New Eastern Europe, July 15, 2015, accessed 05/02/2016:  http://neweasterneurope.eu/articles-and-commentary/1815-ukrainians-in-poland-in-pursuit-of-a-better-life
  41. Interview with Human Trafficking Studies Centre, February 4th, 2016 
  42. Joanna Fomina, 'Ukrainians in Poland: In Pursuit of a Better Life?', New Eastern Europe, July 15, 2015, accessed 05/02/2016:  http://neweasterneurope.eu/articles-and-commentary/1815-ukrainians-in-poland-in-pursuit-of-a-better-life
  43. Zbigniew Lasocik and Łukasz Wieczorek, "Trafficking for Forced Labour in Poland: Research Report" in Trafficking for Forced Labour and Labour Exploitation (FLEX): Towards Increased Knowledge, Cooperation and Exchange of Information in Estonia, Finland and Poland, eds. Anniina Jokinen, Natalia Ollus and Kauko Aromaa (Warsaw: Heuni, 2011), 172, accessed 06/03/14:  http://www.heuni.fi/material/attachments/heuni/reports/6KmRLQd2d/HEUNI_report_68_netti.pdf
  44. International Labour Organisation, Project Brief: Elimination of Human Trafficking from Moldova and Ukraine through Labour Market Based Measures, (International Labour Organisation, 2008), 1. 
  45. Maxim Tucker, 'Sex, Lies and Psychological Scars: Inside Ukraine's Human Trafficking Crisis', The Guardian, February 4, 2016, accessed 05/02/2016:  http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/feb/04/sex-lies-psychological-scars-ukraine-human-trafficking-crisis
  46. Field sources. 
  47. Ministry of the Interior and KCIK, Report on the Implementation of the 'National Action Plan Against Trafficking in Human Beings for 2013–2015ʼ for 2014, (Ministry of the Interior, 2015), p. 14, accessed 27/01/2016:  http://www.handelludzmi.eu/hle/database/national-action-plan/6366, The-National-Action-Plan-against-Trafficking-in-Human-Beings-for-2013-2015.html
  48. As above.  http://www.handelludzmi.eu/hle/database/national-action-plan/6366, The-National-Action-Plan-against-Trafficking-in-Human-Beings-for-2013-2015.html
  49. As above. 
  50. Ministry of the Interior and KCIK, Report on the Implementation of the 'National Action Plan Against Trafficking in Human Beings for 2013–2015' for 2014, (Ministry of the Interior, 2015), p. 26-29, accessed 27/01/2016:  http://www.handelludzmi.eu/hle/database/national-action-plan/6366, The-National-Action-Plan-against-Trafficking-in-Human-Beings-for-2013-2015.html
  51. National Consulting and Intervention Centre for the Victims of Trafficking, National Action Plan Against Trafficking in Human Beings 2013–2015, (KCIK, 2013), pp. 6–7, accessed 11/03/2014,  http://www.kcik.pl/en/doc/POLAND_NAP_2013-2015__EN_.pdf.
  52. Zbigniew Lasocik et al., Country Strategy Report: Modern Slavery Landscape in Poland 2014, (Walk Free, 2014), 54. 
  53. Ministry of the Interior and KCIK, Report on the Implementation of the 'National Action Plan Against Trafficking in Human Beings for 2013–2015ʼ for 2014, (Ministry of the Interior, 2015), p.39, accessed 27/01/2016:  http://www.handelludzmi.eu/hle/database/national-action-plan/6366, The-National-Action-Plan-against-Trafficking-in-Human-Beings-for-2013-2015.html
  54. Zbigniew Lasocik et al., "Country Strategy Report: Modern Slavery Landscape in Poland 2014," (Walk Free, 2014), 30. 
  55. Interview with Human Trafficking Studies Centre, February 4th, 2016 
  56. Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, Report Concerning the Implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings by Poland", (Council of Europe, 2013), p. 38, accessed 10/03/14:  http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/trafficking/Docs/Reports/GRETA_2013_6_FGR_POL_with_comments_en.pdf
  57. Interview with Human Trafficking Studies Centre, February 4th, 2016 
  58. Government of Poland, Progress Report, (Walk Free Foundation, 2014), accessed 01/09/14:  http://www.globalslaveryindex.org/country/poland/
  59. The penal code was amended with the addition of "at work or in service of a compulsory nature, begging, slavery… Zbigniew Lasocik & Łukasz Wieczorek, Trafficking for Forced Labour in Poland: Research Report, (Human Trafficking Studies Centre, Warsaw University, 2010), p. 22. 
  60. Field sources. 
  61. Unit Against Trafficking in Human Beings, "Trafficking in Human Beings," (Ministry of the Interior, 2015), p. 5, accessed 25/01/2016:  http://www.handelludzmi.eu/hle/database/other-documents/6826, Trafficking-Human-Beings-2014-report.html
  62. Zbigniew Lasocik, Emilia Rekosz-Cebula, Łukasz Wieczorek, "Human Trafficking for Forced Labour in Poland: Effective Prevention and Diagnostics of Mechanisms", (Council of the Baltic Sea States, 2014), pp. 46–47, accessed 22/01/2016:  http://www.cbss.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/raport_polish_english_ONLINE.pdf
  63. According to the report prosecutors have demonstrated a preference for charging defendants with crimes such as deprivation of liberty or falsifying documents rather than human trafficking. Reasons for this include the complexity of trafficking cases and the reduced chance of a success. Zbigniew Lasocik, Emilia Rekosz-Cebula, Łukasz Wieczorek, Human Trafficking for Forced Labour in Poland: Effective Prevention and Diagnostics of Mechanisms, (Council of the Baltic Sea States, 2014), p.47, accessed 22/01/2016:  http://www.cbss.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/raport_polish_english_ONLINE.pdf
  64. A representative of the labour inspectorate reported that only five cases of suspected forced labour had been referred to the public prosecutor's office in recent years. Zbigniew Lasocik, Emilia Rekosz-Cebula, Łukasz Wieczorek, Human Trafficking for Forced Labour in Poland: Effective Prevention and Diagnostics of Mechanisms, (Council of the Baltic Sea States, 2014), p. 46, accessed 22/01/2016:  http://www.cbss.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/raport_polish_english_ONLINE.pdf
  65. As part of the NAP (2013-2015) the government of Poland increased its efforts to train officials in the identification of victims and human trafficking in general. However it is unclear if this included adequate information on forced labour. Ministry of the Interior and KCIK, Report on the Implementation of the 'National Action Plan Against Trafficking in Human Beings for 2013–2015ʼ for 2014, (Ministry of the Interior, 2015), pp. 23–26, accessed 27/01/2016:  http://www.handelludzmi.eu/hle/database/national-action-plan/6366, The-National-Action-Plan-against-Trafficking-in-Human-Beings-for-2013-2015.html
  66. Zbigniew Lasocik & Łukasz Wieczorek, "Trafficking for Forced Labour in Poland: Research Report," (Human Trafficking Studies Centre, Warsaw University, 2010), 68–72. 
  67. Ministry of the Interior and KCIK, "Report on the implementation of the 'National Action Plan Against Trafficking in Human Beings for 2013–2015ʼ for 2014," (Ministry of the Interior, 2015), 28–29, accessed 27/01/2016:  http://www.handelludzmi.eu/hle/database/national-action-plan/6366, The-National-Action-Plan-against-Trafficking-in-Human-Beings-for-2013-2015.html
  68. Government of Poland, Law No. 99. "Promotion of Employment and Labour Market Institutions ['ustawy z dnia 20 kwietnia 2004 r. o promocji zatrudnienia i instytucjach rynku pracyʼ]", 2004, Journal of Laws, 20/04/2004, Article 85/2 item 7 and Article 121/2. 
  69. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Trafficking in Persons Report: Poland Country Narrative, (United States Department of State, 2015), p. 282, accessed 21/01/2016:  http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2015/
  70. Interview with Human Trafficking Studies Centre, February 4th, 2016. 
  71. Zbigniew Lasocik, E. Rekosz-Cebula, Łukasz Wieczorek, Handel ludźmi do pracy przymusowej: mechanizmy powstawania i efektywne zapobieganie, (Council of the Baltic Sea States, 2014), pp. 45–47. 
  72. Polish law requires all employment agencies to be registered. Government of Poland, 'Law No. 99, "Promotion of Employment and Labour Market Institutions ['ustawy z dnia 20 kwietnia 2004 r. o promocji zatrudnienia i instytucjach rynku pracyʼ]"', Journal of Laws, 20/04/2004, Article 121/1. 
  73. For example, in collaboration with the NGO Nobody's Children the Orbis Hotel Group established a Code of Conduct which aims to prevent commercial sexual exploitation of children in its' hotels. Zbigniew Lasocik et al., Country Strategy Report: Modern Slavery Landscape in Poland 2014,, (Walk Free, 2014), p. 59. 

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